Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 32-38
Received: May 27, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 15, 2015;
Published: May 23, 2016
Views 4239 Downloads 176
Garba UM, Veterinary Clinic, Equitation Department, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
Sackey AKB, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Lawal AI, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Esievo KAN, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacies of Buparvaquone (an anti-theilerial drug) and Isometamidium chloride (a standard trypanocide) in the treatment of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in donkeys. Out of a total of 24 donkeys, 6 were assigned to each of the experimental groups A1, A2, A3 and B at random. About 2.0x106 T. evansi parasite in 2 mL inoculum was used to infect each of the donkeys in groups A1, A2 and A3 through jugular vein while group B remained as Un-infected control. On day 28 post-infection, animals in groups A2 and A3 were treated with Isometamidium chloride and Buparvaquone respectively. Parasitaemia levels were evaluated post-infection and post-treatment using Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique and supported with mice inoculation tests to ascertain effectiveness of treatments. Group means of parasitaemia were presented on graphs. Result showed that parasites were first detectable from peripheral blood of the infected animals from day 3 and by day 4 post-infection all animals were parasitaemic and the levels fluctuated in subsequent days. The infected-untreated group of animals was aparasitaemic on day 100 post-infection onward using haematocrit centrifugation technique test but mice inoculation test detected relapse with death of all mice used due to heavy parasitemia. Similarly, the buparvaquone-treated group was aparasitemic on day 49 post-treatment (corresponding to day 77 post-infection) but mice inoculation test detected relapse of parasitaemia in the group and all mice used also died. Isometamidium-treated animals were negative for parasitaemia for 50 days on mice inoculation test but later on day 100 post-treatment, showed 60% relapse with parasiaemia level of 1+ in the mice used and they did not die within 48 days of observation. In conclusion, experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in donkeys have pre-patent period of 3-4 days, parasitaemia pattern is undulating and infected-untreated animals became subclinical carriers from day 100 post-infection. The parasites in untreated, carrier animals maintained their virulence and pathogenicity. Buparvaquone on the other hand, depressed parasitaemia but the parasites were virulent and pathogenic to mice. Isometamidium chloride treatment resulted in incomplete clearance of parasitaemia due to Trypanosoma evansi and the relapsed parasites were avirulent and apathogenic. This is also the first report on the trial of buparvaquone for anti-Trypanosoma evansi effect in donkeys.
Dynamics of Parasitaemia in Trypanosoma evansi Infection in Donkeys and the Efficacies of Buparvaquone and Isometamidium chloride Treatments, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2016, pp. 32-38.
Blench R, de Jode A Gherzi E. Donkeys in Nigeria: history, distribution and productivity. A resource book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands. 2013; 244p. ISBN 92-9081-219-2. Retrieved January 01, 2013, from http://www.atnesa.org
Ilemobade AA. Studies on the incidence and pathogenicity of Trypanosoma evansi in Nigeria. 11: The pathogenicity of Trypanosoma evansi for equine and bovine species. ISCTRC, OAU/STRC. 1971; 105:107-114.
OIE [Office International des Epizootes]. Trypanosoma evansi infection (surra).Version adopted by The World Assembly of Deligates of the OIE in May 2010. 2010; Chapter 2.1.17. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from, http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.01.17_TRYPANO.pdf
Cadioli FA, Marques LC, Machado RZ, Alessi AC, Aquino LPCT, Baznabe PA. Experimental T. evansi infection in donkeys: Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. 2006. doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352006000500008
Kirsten Gillingwater aus Hornussen AG. Discovery of novel active diamidines as clinical candidates against Trypanosoma evansi infection, Inaugural dissertation, zur Erlangung der Würde einer Doktorin der Philosophie, vorgelegt der, Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät, der Universität Basel. 2007; 229pp.
WHO [World Health Organisation]. Trypanosomiasis, Human African (sleeping sickness). 2012; Fact sheet No: 259 Updated October 2012, Retrieved May 01, 2013 from, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs259/en/.
Luckins AG. Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in Indonesia. J Protozool Res.1999; 144-152.
Kumar R, Kumar S, Virmani N, Yadav SC. Transplacental transmission of Trypanosoma evansi from experimentally infected donkey mare to neonatal foal. J Equine Vet Sci. 2015; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2015.02.004
Zhou J, Shen J, Liao D, Zhou Y, Lin J. Resistance to drug by different isolates of Trypanosoma evansi in China. Acta Tropica. 2015; 90: 271-275.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation). A field guide for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of African animal trypanosomiasis. Retrieved September 22, 2012. From, www.///C:/Users/HPUSER/ Documents/trypanosomeschemotherapy.htm.
Dhar S, Malhotra DV, Bhushan C, Gautam OP. Chemoprophylaxis with Buparvaquone against theileriosis in calves. Vet Record. 1987; 120: 375.
Antti M, Tracy G, Jarkko R, Tapio N, Jouko V, Ari K, Simon LC, Tomi J. Synthesis, In Vitro evaluation and antileishmanial activity of water soluble pro-drugs of Buparvaquone. J Med Chem. 2004; 47(1): 188-195.
Anene BM, Onah DN, Nawa Y. Drug resistance in pathogenic African trypanosomes: what hopes for the future? Vet Parasitol. 2001; 96: 83-100.
Abbas II, Arigbede YA. Green area mapping of Ahmadu Bello University Main Campus, Zaria, Nigeria using remote sensing (Rs) and geographic information system (Gis) techniques. J Geog Regional Plan. 2012; 5(10): 287-292. DOI: 10.5897/JGRP12.024.
Wayne L, Melvin B. Determining age of horses by their teeth, Extension and Agricultural Information, 1-98 Agriculture Building, Columbia, MO 65211; XPLOR website:.http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/index.aspx. 2000. Accessed 12:30 GMT July 20, 2011.
Joe A. The Donkey Sanctuary. British Veterinary Association. Retrieved February 11, 2012. From, www.bva.co.uk
Wolfensohn S, Lloyd M. (2013). Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare. Fourth edition, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing ltd, U.K., 371pp.
Charles M. Internal parasites, External paraspites. In: Charles M.H. and Margi S. (Eds) Laboratory procedures for veterinary technicians. Fifth edition, Mosby Elsevier Inc., St Louis Missouri. 2007;.pp. 187-252.
YO. Aliu, Nigerian Veterinary Formulary; Handbook of Essential Veterinary Drugs, Biologics and Pesticide Chemicals First edition, (Veterinary Council of Nigeria. 2007; p. 67.
Elaine A, Margi S. Hematology and hemostasis. In: Charles M. H. and Margi S. (Eds) Laboratory Procedures for Veterinary Technicians. Fifth edition, Mosby Elsevier Inc., St Louis Missouri. 2007; pp. 27-73.
Weiser G. Sample collection, processing and analysis of laboratory service options, In: Mary A. T., Glade W., Robin W. A. and Terry W. C. (Eds) Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry, second edition, Wiley-Black Well, U. K.. 2012; pp. 34-50.
Monzon CM, Mancebo OA, Roux JP. Comparison between 6 parasitological methods for diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi in the subtropical area of Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 1990; 36: 141–146.
Aganga AA, Letso M, Aganga AO. Feeding donkeys, Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2000; 12(2): 2000. http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd12/2/agan122.htm. Retrieved on 12/07/12, 1200 GMT
Aviva P, Poul W. Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science. Third edition (Wiley-Blackwell ltd, UK. 2013; 391pp.
Woo PTK. The haematocrit centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Acta Tropica. (1970; 27 (4): 384-386.
Aliu YO. Nigerian Veterinary Formulary; Handbook of Essential Veterinary Drugs, Biologics and Pesticide Chemicals. First edition, Veterinary Council of Nigeria. 2007; p. 67.
Mead R, Curnow RN, Hasted AM. Statistical Methods in Agriculture and Experimental Biology (Texts in Statistical Science). Third edition, Chapman and Hall/CRC, UK. 2002; 488pp.
Brun R, Hecker V, Lu V. Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum: Distribution, biology, treatment and phylogenetic relationship (A review), Vet Parasitol. 1998; 79(1998): 95-107.
Herrera HM, Davila AM, Norek A, Abru UG, Souza SS, Andrea PSD, Jansen AM. Enzootiology of Trypanosoma evansi in the pantanal. Braz Vet Parasitol. 2004; 125: 263-275.
Sudarto MW, Tabel H, Haines DM. Immunohistochemical demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi in tissues of experimentally infected rats and a naturally infected water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Parasitol. 1990; 76 (2): 162–167.
Ramirez LE, Wells EA, Betancourt A.. La trypanosomises en los animales domesticos en Colombia (S.L.) Centro International Agricultura Tropical. 1979; 71pp.
Stephen L. Trypanosomiasis: A Veterinary Perspective. Pergamon Press, New York, USA. 1986.
Hutchinson OC, Picozzi K., Jones NG, Mott H, Sharma R, Welburn SC, Carrington M. Variant Surface Glycoprotein gene repertoires in Trypanosoma brucei have diverged to become strain-specific. BioMed Central Genomics. 2007; 8: 234. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-234.
Touratier L. The advantages of using Isometamidium for the control of animal trypanosomiasis. International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control. Sixteenth meeting, Yaounde, Cameroon, 1979. OAU/STRC. 1981; 308- 316.
Mira SF, Ralph R. Manual of Tropical Veterinary Parasitology. First edition, C.A.B., England. 1989; pp. 181-260.
Shapiro TA, Englund PT. Selective cleavage of kinetoplast DNA minicircles promoted by antitrypanosomal drugs. Proceedings Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 950–954.
Kaminsky R, Schmid C, Lun ZR. Susceptibility of dyskinetoplastic Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum to isometamidium chloride. Parasitol Res. 1997; 83: 816-818.