Meat-Borne Parasites a Health Hazard Concern in the Sudan: A Review
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 103-107
Received: Dec. 1, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 19, 2016; Published: Jan. 21, 2017
Views 2641      Downloads 62
Ghada Hassan Abdelnabi, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, Sudan
Shawgi Mohamed Hassan, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, Sudan
Atif Elamin Abdelgadir, Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, Sudan
Elgailani Ali Elamin, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, Sudan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Food-borne diseases in general have received more attention in the last decade, but little attention has been paid to parasitic food-borne infections. This is probably due to the fact that they are not associated with acute illness as bacterial and viral infections do. In the Sudan, the most important parasitic meat-borne infections are Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Linguatula serrata and fish infection with trematode metacercaria. Control measures used in the country to prevent infection with these parasites are through inspecting meat in slaughterhouses for cysticercosis. Toxoplasma and Sarcocystsis infections are not considered during routine meat inspection due to lack of techniques for detection of these infections. Prevalence of infection with these parasites in humans and livestock in all States of Sudan is not available. Methods for routine diagnosis, monitoring or recording of these infections are inadequate, or not existing, in most of the laboratories. Studies are required to establish seroprevalence in livestock and humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and control meat-borne parasites using new technologies such as serological and molecular techniques, health education and vaccination. Researchers are urged to participate and establish innovative ways and means to control these diseases.
Meat-Borne, Parasites, Zoonosis, Sudan
To cite this article
Ghada Hassan Abdelnabi, Shawgi Mohamed Hassan, Atif Elamin Abdelgadir, Elgailani Ali Elamin, Meat-Borne Parasites a Health Hazard Concern in the Sudan: A Review, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 103-107. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20160406.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anon 2014. Ministry of Animal Resources Sudan, Information Center.
Hanak E, Boutrit E, Fabre P, Pineiro M. Food safety management in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, CIRAD – FAO, 11–13 December 2000; Montpellier, France.
Dorny P, Praet N, Deckers S, Gabriei S. Emerging food- borne parasites, Vet. Parasitol. 2009; 163: 196-206.
Jongwutiwes S, Putaporntip C, Chantachum N, P Sampatanukul. Jejunal perforation caused by morphological abnormal Taenia saginata infection. J. Infect. 2004; 49: 324-328.
Karrar ZA, Rahim FA. Prevalence and risk factors of parasitic infections among under-five Sudanese children: a community based study. East. Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72: 103-109.
Babiker MS, Ali M, Ahmed ES. Frequency of intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Khartoum. Sudan. Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 2009; 15 (5): 1098-1099.
Yoder DR, Ebel ED, Hancock DD, Combs BA. Epidemiologic findings from an outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1994; 205: 45-50.
Giesecke WH. 1997. Prevalence and economic implications of taeniasis/ cysticercosis in South Africa. In: Cysticercosis report on a workshop held at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa, 18-19 August 1997. pp. 19-70.
Anon 2011. Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries, Sudan Annual Report (2011).
Haridy FM, Ibrahim BB, Morsy TA, Ramadan NI. Human taeniasis and cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle, buffaloes and pigs in Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc., Parasitol. 1999; 29 (2): 375-394.
Abdo BRN, Sayed ASM, Hussein AAA, Arafa MI. Occurrence of cysticercosis in cattle and buffaloes and Taenia saginata in man in Assiut Governance of Egypt. Vet. Word. 2009; 2: 173-176.
Abdel-Hafeez EA, Kamal AM, Abdel Gelil NH, Abdel-Fatah MM. Parasites transmitted to human by ingestion of different types of meat, El-Minia City, El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc., Parasitol. 2015; 45 (3): 671-680.
Opara MN, Ukpong UM, Okoli IC, Anosike JC. Cysticercosis of slaughter cattle in southeastern Nigeria. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 006; 1081: 339-346.
Dorny P, Phiri I, Gabriel S, Speybroeck N, Vercruysse J. A sero-epidemiological study of bovine cysticercosis in Zambia. Vet. Parasitol. 2002; 104 (3): 211-215.
Darien KM. Ante-mortem and post-mortem causes of condemnation of meat in Ghanawa Slaughterhouse in Khartoum State. 2008; MTAH thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Geerts S, Kumar V, Aerts N, Ceulemans F. Comparative evaluation of immunoelectrophoresis, counter- immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA for the diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis. Vet. Parasitol. 1981; 88: 43-49.
Dorny P, Vercammen F, Brandt J, Vansteenkiste W, Berkvens D. Sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Belgian cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 2000; 8: 299-307.
Gumaa N, AbdulRaheem EM, Nur-Eldaiem Z, Hussein M, Nasri M, Abdelhaleem A. New record of trematode metacercaria as zoonotic parasite in Mullet fish in the Sudanese Red Sea Waters. J. Biomed. Pharmaceut. Res. 2015; 4 (3): 66-69.
Carter F, Fleck D. The incidence of Toxoplasma antibodies in the Sudanese. Transaction of the Royal. Soc. of Trop. Med. and Hyg. 1966; 60: 539-543.
Elnahas A, Gerais AS, Elbashir MI, Eldien ES, Adam I. Toxoplasmosis in pregnant Sudanese women. Saudi. Med. J. 2003; 28(8): 868-70.
Khalil M, Ahmed AA, Intisar E. Prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans from Khartoum State. Int. J. Public. Health. Epidemiol. 2013; 2 (3): 60-66.
Abdel-Hameed AA. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Gezira, Sudan, J. of Trop. Med. Hyg. 1991; 94 (5): 329-332.
Khalil M, Peter K, Alia B, Marek M, El Taib G, Ali A, Intisar E. Immuno-diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis in childbearing age women in rural areas in El Geizera State Sudan. Inter. Med. Sci. 2009; 1 (7): 272-277.
Tamomh AG, Mohamed HY, Magboul AM, Hassan IM, Ibrahim RM, Mohammed HMA, Dafaallah TYI. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant gynecological women in Tendalty Hospital, Tendalty Town, White Nile State, Sudan. World. J. Biol. Med. Sci. 2016; 3 (3): 76-83.
Zain Eldin EA, Elkhawad SE, Kheir HSM. A serological survey for Toxoplasma antibodies in cattle, sheep, goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan. Revue d'ÉLevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux. 1985; 38: 257–249.
Bornstein S, Musa BE. Prevalence of antibodies to some viral pathogens, Brucella abortus and Toxoplasma gondii in serum from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Sudan. J. Vet. Med. 1987; 34 (5): 364-370.
Abbas B, El Zubair E, Yassin T. Survey for certain zoonotic diseases in camels in Sudan. Rev. E’lev. Med. Vet. Pays. Trop. 1987; 40: 31-33.
Elamin E A, Elias S, Daugschies A, Rommel M. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pastoral camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the Butana plains, mid-Eastern Sudan. Vet. Parasitol. 1992; 43 (3-4): 171-175.
Manal YI, Majid AM, Magzoub E. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Sudan. Al Buhuth, The Sudan J. of Scientific Research. 2005; 9 (1): 94-102.
Khalil M, Gadir AEA, Rahman MMA, Yassir OM, Ahmed AA, Intisar E. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in camels and their herds in three ecologically different areas in Sudan. J. Caml. Pract. and Research. 2007; 14 (1): 11-13.
Michael S, El Refai A, Morsy T. The incidence of Toxoplasma antibodies among camels in Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasit. 1977; 7: 129-132.
Hussein MF, Bakkar N, Basmacil SM, Gar El Nabi AR. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Saudi Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius). Vet. Parasitol. 1988; 28: 175-178.
Khalil MK, Intisar E. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in farm animals (camels, cattle, and sheep) in Sudan. J. Vet. Med. and Anim. Heal. 2011; 3: 36-39.
Elfahal AM, Elhassan AM, Hussien MO, Enan KA, Musa AB, El Hussein AM. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. ISRN Veterinary Science. 2013; vol. 2013, Article ID 895165, 4 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/895165.
Bekele T, Kasali OB. Toxoplasmosis in sheep, goats and cattle in central Ethiopia. Veterinary Research Communication. 1989; 13:371–375.
El Ridi AM, Nada SM, Aly AS, Habeeb SM, Aboul Fattah MM. Serological studies on toxoplasmosis in Zagazig Slaughterhouse. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 1990; 20: 677-687.
Ibrahim BB, Salama MM, Gawish NI, Haridy FM. Serological and histopathological studies on Toxoplasma gondii among the workers and the slaughtered animals in Tanta Abattoir. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 1997; 27: 273-278.
El Metenawy TM. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among domesticated ruminants at Al Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 2000; 107: 32-33.
Vanderpuije WNA, Bosompem KM, Canacoo EA, Wastling JM, Akanmori BD. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Ghanaian sheep and goats. Acta. Tropica. 2000; 76: 21–26.
Amin M, Morsy A. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in butchers and slaughtered sheep and goats in Jeddah Municipal Abattoir, Saudi Arabia. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 1997; 27: 913-918.
Hussien MO, Alfaki SH, El Hussein ARM. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in.chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Sudan. Int. J. Infect. 2016 (In press); doi: 10.17795/iji-40312.
Pathmanathan R, Khan SP. Three cases of human Sarcocystis infection with a review of human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Trop. Geogr. Med. 1992; 44: 102-108.
Fayer R. Sarcocystis spp. in human infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2004; 17: 894-902.
Ginawi MA, Shommein A. M. Prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in sheep, goats and camels in the Sudan. Sudan. J. Vet. Sci. & Anim. Hus. 1977; 18: 92-97.
Hussein SH, Warrag M. Prevalence of Sarcocystis in food animals in the Sudan. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 1985; 17: 100-101.
Gardiner CH, Dyke JW, Shirely SF. Hepatic granuloma due to a nymph of Linguatula serrata in a woman from Michigan a case report and review of the literature. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1984; 33: 187-189.
El Hassan AM, Eltoum IA, El Asha BMA. The Marara syndrome isolation of Linguatula serrata nymph from a patient and the viscera of goats. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1991; 85: 309.
Yagi H, El Bahari S, Mohamed HA, Ahmed el-R S, Mustafa B, Mahmoud M, Saad MBA, Sulaiman SM, el Hassan AM. The Marrara syndrome: a hypersensitivity reaction of the upper respiratory tract and buccopharyngeal mucosa to nymphs of Linguatula serrata. Acta. Trop. 1996; 62: 127-134.
Acha, PN, Szyfres B. Pentastomosis. In: Acha, P. N. and Szyfres B. (Eds) Zoonosis and communicable diseases common to man and animals (parasitosis). Third edition, Washington, D. C., Scientific and technical publication. 2003; pp. 345-380.
Elbadawi el KS, el-Gezuli AY, Eisa A M, Slepnev NK, Linguatula serrata nymph in a goat in the Sudan. Veterinary Record. 1978; 102:171.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931