Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2018, Pages: 6-11
Received: Oct. 25, 2017;
Accepted: Nov. 17, 2017;
Published: Jan. 18, 2018
Views 1412 Downloads 94
Obudu Christopher Ese, Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Awodi Daniel Adejo, Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Ubah Simon Azubuike, Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Columbus Philemon Kwinjoh, Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Abah Kenneth Owoicho, Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
The age at puberty of Nigerian dogs around the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja was determined in order to validate earlier reports from other parts of Nigeria and to provide additional information for canine reproductive research. 16 pre-pubertal female dogs were purchased from different dog markets and households within the FCT. They were housed in cages in groups of four and allowed to acclimatise for two weeks, during which time they were treated against external and internal parasitic infections until they were clinically free from disease. They were also vaccinated against common diseases such as rabies, distemper, leptospirosis, parvo and hepatitis using standard vaccines and fed twice daily with household meals. They were then observed daily for the onset of puberty through behavioural changes, haematology and vaginal cytology. All the dogs attained puberty between eight and thirteen months of age. Dog owners are therefore advised to be properly guided to prepare for the bloody discharge that is associated with onset of reproductive cyclicity. There is also need for patience as many dogs in this environment attain puberty at a later age than exotic breeds.
Obudu Christopher Ese,
Awodi Daniel Adejo,
Ubah Simon Azubuike,
Columbus Philemon Kwinjoh,
Abah Kenneth Owoicho,
Validation of Age at Puberty of Nigerian Bitches, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 6-11.
Zeuner, F. E. (1963): A history of domesticated animals. Hutchinson & Co. Ltd, London. 560pp.
Epstein, H. The origin of the domesticated animals of Africa. Africana Publ. Corp., New York, London, Munich, 1:1–573, 2:1–719, 1971.
Oyeyemi M. O; Akusu M. O. & Ola-Davies, O. E (2000). Effect of successive ejaculations on the spermiogram of West African dwarf goats (Capra hircus L.). Veterinarski arhiv, Vol. 70 No. 4, 215 – 221.
Pfaffenberger, C. J.: Scott, J. P. (1959): The relationship between delayed socialization and trainability in guide dogs. J. Genet. Psychol. 95, 145–155.
Oluwatoyin O. Ajala, Fayemi, O. E., and Oyeyemi, M. O. 2012. The oestrous cycle of the Nigerian local bitch. Global Veterinaria 8.6: 574-582.
Mutembei, H. Mutigaa, E. R and Tsuma, V. T. (2000) A retrospective study on some reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches in Kenya. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 71 (2): 115-1.
Delemarre-van de Waal H. A., van Coeverden S. C. C. M., Engelbregt M. J. T (2002): Factors affecting onset of puberty. Horm Res 2002; 57 (suppl 2): 15-18 doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2010.08.028
Davol P. A (2000): Canine reproduction Part 1: Reproduction and the bitch. Retrieved 19/09/2016, 07:47pm from http://www.labbies.com/reproduction.htm
Dewey T. and Bhagat S. (2002): Canis Inpus familiaris. Animat. Diversity Web. Retrieved 14/02/2016, 01:56pm from http://www.animaldiversity.org/accounts/Canis_lupus_familiaris/
Nelson R. N. and Couto C. G. (2003): Small Animal Internal Medicine 3 Ed. Mosby 11830 Westline Industrial Drive St. Louis Missouri 63146: 847-933.
Pretzer S. D (2009): Canine oestrous cycle: Abnormalities of the Canine Estrous Cycle: A Review. Retrieved 29/03/2016, 07:01pm from http://www.uskbtc.com/about-kerries/health-genetics/canine-oestrous-cycle/
Balogun O. (2001): The Federal Capital Territory: A Geography of its development. University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Tong S. and Donald K. (2002). Climate Variability and Disease Virus Transmission. Journal of Epidermiology Community; 56: 617-621.
Beimborn K. S., Tarpley H. L., Bain P. J. and Latimer K. S. (2003): The canine estrous cycle staging using vaginal cytological examination.
Davidson B. P (2013): Dogs. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 20/09/2016, 10:34am from http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/management_and_nutrition/management_of_reproduction_small_animals/breeding_management_of_small_animals.html
Correa J. E (2002): Canine breeding and reproduction. Food and Animal Science. Albama, A and M University. Albama cooperative extension system. UNP-52. Retrieved 20/09/2016, 01:43pm from http://www.aces.edu
Wright P.J. and Chu Po-yin, (2001): The oestrous cycle of the bitch: Oestrus induction and suppression. Retrieved, 28/01/2016, 06:45pm from http://www.greyhoundvet.co.uk/downloads/AGVAOL.HTM
Noakes D. E. Parkinson T. J. and England G. C. W (2009): Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, 9th ed. Saunders Company. Chap. 1, Pg 6.
Blendinger K. (2007): Physiology and pathology of the oestrous cycle of the Bitch. Proceedings of the SCIVAC Congress, Rimini, Italy.
Phemister R. D., Holst P. A., Spano J. S., Hopwood M. L., (1973): Time of ovulation in the Beagle Bitch. Biol Reprod, 8, 74–82 [PubMed: 4734806].
Wildt D. E, Panko W. B, Chakraborty P. K, Seager S. W (1979): Relationship of serum estrone, estradiol-17β, and progesterone to LH, sexual behavior and time of ovulation in the bitch. Biol Reprod. 20: 648-658.
Bobade P. A., Oduye O. O., Helen O. and Aghoma O. (1985): Haemogram of clinically normal dogs with particular reference to local (Nigerian) and German shepherd dogs. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 14(1):7-11.
Mshelia G. D., Amin J. D and Chaudhary S. U. R (2005): Haemogram of Nigerian mongrel bitches at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Pakistan Vet. J., 25(1).
Anonymous (2014): Canine Haematology – Wiki Vet English. Retrieved 18/09/2016, 01: 23 pm from http://en.wikivet.net/Canine_Haematology
Whitbread T. J. (2015): Clinical Hematology. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 18/09/2016, 06: 32 pm from http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/clinical_pathology_and_procedures/diagnostic_procedures_for_the_private_practice_laboratory/clinical_hematology.html
Avery A. C. and Avery P. R (2007): Determining the significance of persistent lymphocytosis. Vet. Clin. North Am Small Anim Pract 37(2): 267-282.
Anonymous (2016c): The Canine Estrous Cycle. Aquila Kennels. Alaskan Malamutes. Retrieved 20/09/2016; 07: 42pm from http://www.aquilakennels.com/estrous_cycle.php