Molecular Characterization of Rabies Virus from Foxes in the Sultanate of Oman
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2018, Pages: 17-20
Received: Feb. 10, 2018; Accepted: Mar. 9, 2018; Published: May 8, 2018
Views 1298      Downloads 37
Authors
Mohammad Hassan Body, Animal Health Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
Mohamed Sayed Ahmed, Animal Health Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
Hatim Hassan Eltahir, Animal Health Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
Mahir Ghareeb ALmaewaly, Animal Health Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
Saif Alhabsi, Animal Health Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Rabies was firstly recorded in Oman in August 1990, when a school boy had been bitten by a fox. Within a year, then the virus was recorded among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Unlike other developing countries, dog is not the usual agent of rabies transmission in Oman but fox considered the main reservoir (sylvatic transmission). The present study was Carried out to determine the molecular epidemiology of fox rabies virus in Oman. The nucleoprotein (N) genes were amplified from brain of three rabid foxes obtained during (2009-2012). The nucleotide sequences of the genes were subjected to molecular and phylogenic analysis. The phylogenic analysis was performed in relation to Omani foxes isolates and other sequences from the Saudi Arabia (isolated in 1987) available in the GenBank. Results indicated that only one genetic group of fox rabies virus appeared to be circulating in Oman since 1990. The study also showed that the recent isolate (2012) of Omani rabies virus from foxes is closely related (97%) to those viruses isolated from foxes in Saudi Arabia. According to the obtained results, It is clear that since its first diagnosis in 1990 the rabies fox virus has not gone through significant virus variant in Oman, It seems that rabies is maintained endemically in Oman through wild foxes. In conclusion the findings reported here highlight the remarkable genetic stability of rabies virus.
Keywords
Rabies Virus, Fox, Genetic, Gen Bank, Oman
To cite this article
Mohammad Hassan Body, Mohamed Sayed Ahmed, Hatim Hassan Eltahir, Mahir Ghareeb ALmaewaly, Saif Alhabsi, Molecular Characterization of Rabies Virus from Foxes in the Sultanate of Oman, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 17-20. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20180601.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
ALismaaily, S. I., Tageldin, M. H., Body, M. H., and AL Habsy, S. (2002). retrospective studies of rabies in the Sultanate of Oman 1990-2000. Agric. Fish. Res. Bull. 2:25-28.
[2]
Anonymous (1992). Wijdlife rabies in Oman and the United Arab Emirates. Epidemiol. rec. 67:65-72.
[3]
Arai, Y. T., Takahashi, H., Kameoka, Y., Shiino, T., Wimalaratne, O. and Lodmell, D. L. (2001). Characterization of Sri Lanka rabies virus isolates using nucleotide sequence analysis of nucleoprotein gene. Acta Virol. 45:327-333.
[4]
Ata, F. A, Tageldin, M. H, Alsumry, H. S. and Alismaily, S. I. (1993). Rabies in the Sultanate of Oman. Vet Rec. 132:68-69.
[5]
Batista, H. B., Mariano, P. C., Fernandes, M. E., Oliveira, R. N., Kawai, J. G., Carnieli,. J. r., and Roehe, P. M., (2015). Antigenic and Genetic Stability of Rabies Virus. Donnish Journal of General and Molecular Virology. 1:001-004.
[6]
Body, M., ALrawhi, A., Hussain, M., Al Habsi, S., Awlad Wadir, A., Nirmala, S., Mohamed, S. A and Rajamony, S. (2014). Study on molecular characterization of rabies virus N gene segment from different animal species in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 16(12):295-301.
[7]
Boury, H., B. Kissi, N., Tordo, H., Badrane, H. and sacramento, D. (1995). Molecular epidemiology tools and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria and viruses with special emphasis on lyssaviruses. Prev. Vet. Med. 25:164-181.
[8]
David, D., Yakobson, B., Smith, J. S. and Stram, Y. (2000). Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus isolates from Israel and other Middle- and Near-Eastern countries. J. Clin. Mirobiol. 38:755-762.
[9]
Gunawardena, P. S., Marston, D. A., Ellis, R. J., Wise, E. L., Karawita, A. C., et al. (2016). Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 22:1456-1459.
[10]
Hayman, D. T., Fooks, A. R., Marston, D. A. and Garcia, R. J. (2016). The Global Phylogeography of Lyssaviruses Challenging the 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 10(12).
[11]
Hussain, M. H., Ward, M. P., Body, M., AL-Rawahi, A., wadir, A. A., AL-Habsi, S., Saqib, M., Ahmed, M. S. and Almaawali, M. G. (2013). Spatio-temporal pattern of sylvatic rabies in the Sultanate of Oman, 2006-2010., Prev. Vet. Med. 110:281-9.
[12]
Johnson, N., McElhinney, L. M., Smith, J., Lowings, P. and Fooks, A. R. (2002). phylogenetic comparison of the genus Lyssavirus using distal coding sequences of the glycoprotein and nucleoprotein genes. Arch. Virol. 147:2111-2 3.
[13]
Kumar, S., Tamura, K., Jakobsen, I. B. and Nei, M. (2001). MEGA2; molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17:1244-1245.
[14]
Ministry of Health. Sultanate of Oman (1998). Rabies in Oman. Community Health and Disease Surveillance Newsletter II: 1-9.
[15]
Novelli, V. M. and Malankar. P. (1991). Epizootic of fox rabies in the Sultanate of oman. Trans. R. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85:543.
[16]
Sacramento, D., Badrane, H., Bourhy, H. and Tordo, N. (1992). Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in France; comparison with vaccine strain. J. Gen. Virol. 73:1149-58.
[17]
Sadeuh-Mba, S. A., Momo, J. B., Besong, L., Loul, S. and Njouom, R. (2017). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 11(10).
[18]
Saitou, N. and Nei, M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method; a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4:406-425.
[19]
Scrimgeour, E. M. and Mehta, F. R. (2001). Rabies in Oman; failed post exposure vaccination in lactating woman bitten by a fox. Int. J. Infec. Dis. 5:160-162.
[20]
Traore, A., Picard-Meyer, E., Mauti, S., Biarnais, M., Balmer, O., et al. (2016). Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 22:866-870.
[21]
Troupin, C., Dacheux, L., Tanguy, M., Sabeta, C., Blanc, H., et al. (2016). Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals the Complex Evolutionary History of Rabies Virus in Multiple Carnivore Hosts. PLoS Pathog. 12
[22]
Tuvshintulga, B., Batmagnai, E., Bazarragchaa, E., Dulam, P., Sugar, S. and Battsetseg, B. (2015). Detection and molecular characterization of rabies virus in Mongolia during 2008-2010. Int J One Health. 1:26-31.
[23]
Wiktor, T. J., Flamand, A. and Koprowski, H. (1980). Use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis of rabies virus infection and differentiation of rabies and rabies-related viruses. J. Virol. Method. 1(1):33-46.
[24]
Wiktor, T. J. and Koprowski, H. (1978). Monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus produced by somatic cell hybridization: detection of antigenic variants. Proc.. Natl. Acad. Sci. 75:3938-3942.
[25]
Wunner, W. H., Larson, J. K., Dietzschold, B. and Smith, C. L. (1988). The molecular biology of rabies viruses. Rev. Infect. 10(4):5771-5784.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931