A Survey of Bacterial Pathogens Detected in Feces and Wool in Small Ruminants (Pilot Study)
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2019, Pages: 102-106
Received: Apr. 15, 2019; Accepted: May 24, 2019; Published: Aug. 5, 2019
Views 97      Downloads 26
María Gallardo, Faculty of Sciences, Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Faculty of Sciences, Mayor University, Santiago, Chile
Lucía Azócar-Aedo, Faculty of Medicine and Science, San Sebastian University, Puerto Montt, Chile
Luis Arias-Darraz, Faculty of Sciences, Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Fondap Research Center, Incar, Valdivia, Chile
Giorgio Castellar, Fondap Research Center, Incar, Valdivia, Chile
Miguel Salgado, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Juan Cárcamo, Faculty of Sciences, Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Fondap Research Center, Incar, Valdivia, Chile
Article Tools
Follow on us
Sheep feces can carry a high concentration of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, which potentially may contaminate wool as well as the shearers or wool manipulators through direct contact. A pilot study was carried out to determine the presence of bacterial DNA in feces and the degree of bacterial contamination in wool in two species of ruminants. Fourteen 2-month old lambs and 14 kids (7 male and 7 female), uncastrated, no twins, with their mothers, were randomly selected at weaning from a free flock grazing on naturalized pasture of Los Ríos region, Chile. Fecal and wool samples were taken once and analyzed for genomic DNA of Salmonella typhimurium containing the virulence plasmid spv, Eschrichia coli serotype O157, Clostridium perfringens type C containing α toxin and Mycobacterium avium sp paratuberculosis containing the IS900 insertion element. The results showed that lamb and kids feces had higher contents of bacterial DNA for E. coli O157 and SalmT than lamb wool, although only one lamb showed these two bacteria on its wool. The bacterial species influenced the DNA expression for 16S in both, feces (P=0.05) and wool (P=0.0006) and for E. coli O157 and SalmT only in feces (P<0.0001). The sex was associated with E. coli detection in lambs feces (P<0.0007) and in kids feces (P<0.05). The values obtained for MAP IS900 and Cpa DNA contents, considering both species and sex, were undetectable. In conclusion, lamb and kids feces should potentially contaminate wool especially by Eschrichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium, representing a potential health risk and public health concern, especially for shearers and wool handlers.
Genomic DNA, Bacteria, Lambs, Kids
To cite this article
María Gallardo, Lucía Azócar-Aedo, Luis Arias-Darraz, Giorgio Castellar, Miguel Salgado, Juan Cárcamo, A Survey of Bacterial Pathogens Detected in Feces and Wool in Small Ruminants (Pilot Study), Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 102-106. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20190704.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Moriarty, E. M., Mackenzie, M. L., Karki, N., Sinton,. LW, 2011a. Survival of indicator and pathogenic bacteriain sheep feces on pasture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75: 6.
Kudva, I. T., Blanch, K., Hovde, C. J. 1998. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in ovine or bovine manure and manure slurry. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64: 3166-3174.
Avery, L. M., Killham, K., Jones, D. L. 2005. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 in organic wastes destined for land application. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98: 814-822.
Williams, A. P., Gordon, H., Jones, D. L., Strachan, N. J. C., Avery, L. M., et al. 2008. Leaching of bioluminescent Escherichia coli O157:H7 from sheep and cattle faeces during simulated rainstorm events. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105: 1452-1460.
Blanco, M., Blanco, J., Mora, A., González, E., Bernárdez, M., et al. 2003. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in Spain: prevalence, serotypes, and virulence genes of O157:H7 and non- O157 VTEC in ruminants, raw beef products and humans. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 228: 345-351.
Battisti, A., Lovari, S., Franco, A., Diegidio, A., Tozzoli, R., et al. 2006. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in lambs at slaughter in Rome, central Italy. Epidemiology and Infection, 134: 415-419.
Hanlon, K., Miller, M., Guillen, M., Echeverry, A., Dormedy, E., et al. 2018. Presence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 on the hide, and presence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157 and Campylobacter in feces from small ruminant (goat and lamb) samples collected in the United States, Bahamas and Mexico. Meat Science, 138: 1-5.
Mersha, G., Asrat, D., Zewde, B. M, Kyule, M. 2010. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in faeces, skin and carcasses from sheep and goats in Ethiopia. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 50: 71-76.
Knight, D. and Riley, T. 2013. Prevalence of gastrointestinal Clostridium difficile carriage in Australian sheep and lambs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79 (18): 5689-92.
Schilling, A. K., Hotzel, H., Methner, U., Sprague, L., Schmoock, G., et al. 2012. Zoonotic agents in small ruminants kept on city farms in Southern Germany. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (11): 3785-93.
Ganter, M. 2015. Zoonotic risks from small ruminants. Veterinary Microbiology, 181: 53-65.
Hancock, D., Besser, T., Lejeunes, J., Davis, M., Rice, D. 2001. The control of VTEC in the animal reservoir. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 66: 71-78.
Brown, P. E., Christensen, O. F., Clough, H. E., Diggle, P. J., Hart, C. A., et al. 2004. Frequency and spatial distribution of environmental Campylobacter spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 6501-6511.
Cox, P., Griffith, M., Angles, M., Deere, D., Ferguson, C. 2005. Concentrations of pathogens and indicators in animal feces in the Sydney watershed. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71: 5929-5934.
Dimareli-Malli, Z., Stevenson, K., Sarris, K., Sossidou, K. 2009. Study of microbiological and molecular typing aspects of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats in northern Greece. Transbounary and Emerging Diseases, 56: 285-290.
Delgado, L., García Marín, J. F., Muñoz, M., Benavides, J., Juste,. RA., et al. 2013. Pathological findings in young and adult sheep following experimental infection with 2 different doses of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Veterinary Pathology, 50: 857-866.
Clifford, R. J., Milillo, M., Prestwood, J., Quintero, R., Zurawski, D., et al. 2012. Detection of bacterial 16S sRNA identifcation of four clinically important bacteria by real-time PCR. PLoS ONE 7 (11), e48558. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0048558.
Guy, RA., Tremblay, D., Beausoleil, L., Harel, J., Champagne, M. 2014. Quantification of E. coli O157 and STEC in feces of farm animals using direct multiplex real time PCR (qPCR) and a modified most probable number assay comprised of immunomagnetic bead separation and qPCR detection. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 99: 44-53.
O’Hanlon, K. A., Catarame, T. M. G., Duffy, D., Blair, I. S., McDowell, D. A. 2004. Rapid detection and quantification of E. coli O157//O26/O111 in minced beef by real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96: 1013-1023.
Garmory, H. S., Chanter, N., French, N. P., Bueschel, D., Songer, J. G., et al. 2000. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin amongst animals, determined using genotyping and subtyping PCR assays. Epidemiology and Infection, 124: 61-67.
Herthnek, D. and Bolske, G. 2006. New PCR systems to confirm real-time PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. BMC Microbiol 6, 87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-6-87.
Field, K. G. and Samadpour, M. 2007. Fecal source tracking, the indicator paradigm, and managing water quality. Water Research, 41: 3517-3538.
Davies, R. H., Dalziel, R., Gibbens, J. C., Wilesmith, J. W., Ryan, J. M. B., et al. 2004. National survey for Salmonella in pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter in Great Britain (1999–2000). Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96: 750-760.
Moriarty, E. M., McEwan, N., Mackenzie, M., Karki, N., Sinton, L. W., et al. 2011b. Incidence and prevalence of microbial indicators and pathogens in ovine faeces in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 54: 10.
Munsi, N., Ershaduzzaman, Gani, O., Khanduker, M., Alam, S. 2015. Identification of bacterial agents from the faecal samples of diarrheic sheep and their antibiotic sensitivity. Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, 2 (3): 453-457.
Reid, C., Small, A., Avery, S., Buncic, S. 2002. Presence of food-born pathogens on cattle hides. Food Control 13 (6): 411-415.
Petkovsek, Z., Elersic, K., Gubina, M., Zgur-Bertok, D., Starcic Erjavec, M. 2009. Virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolates from skin and soft tissue infections Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47 (6): 1811-1817.
Fraser, N., Davies, B. W., Cusack, J. 2006. Neonatal omphalitis: a review of its serious complications. Acta Paediatrica, 95: 519-522.
Afifi, R. Y. and El-Hindawi, A. A. 2008. Acute necrotizing fasciitis in Egyptian patients: a case series. International Journal of Surgery, 6: 6-14.
Rodgers, G. L., Mortensen, J., Fisher, M. C., Lo, A., Cresswell, A., et al. 2000. Predictions of infectious complications after burn injuries in children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease journal 19: 990-995.
Gkiourtzidis, K., Frey, J., Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou, E., Iliadis, N., Sarris, K. 2001. PCR Detection and prevalence of alpha-, beta-, beta 2-, epsilon-, iota- and enterotoxin genes in Clostridium perfringens isolated from lambs with clostridial dysentery. Veterinary Microbiology, 82: 39-43.
Cong, W., Xu, W., Janton, S., Henderson, W. A., Matson, A., et al. 2016. Gut microbiome developmental patterns in early life of preterm infants: impacts of feeding and gender. PLoS ONE 11 (4), e0152751. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0152751.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186