Performance and Feed Bio Economics of Growing West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Steam-Treated Cashew Nut Shell
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages: 14-18
Received: Oct. 1, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 12, 2019;
Published: Jan. 31, 2020
Views 217 Downloads 61
Ocheja Josiah Omachi, Department of Animal Science, Federal University, Kashere, Nigeria
Usman Grace Ojali, Department of Food, Nutrition and Home Science, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Ahmed Sule Hassanatu, Department of Animal Science, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
Boyi Prince Ufedojo, Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Akoh Josiah Omale, Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Adamu Abdulmajid Tsobaza, Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Eboh Sule, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Studies on cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell meal for feeding West African dwarf goats were carried out. Four diets containing 0% (control), 10%, 15% and 20% steam-treated cashew nut shell coded as T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, were compared. Twenty growing, West African dwarf goats were randomly assigned to four (4) treatments of five (5) goats each. The goats were fed and given water ad libitum. The effects of feeding graded levels of cashew nut shell based diets on performance and, Bio-economics were evaluated. Completely randomized design was used in the experiments. Data obtained were subjected to a one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and means that were significantly different were separated using least significant difference (LSD) both contained in SPSS for window, version 16. Samples of the diets and bamboo leaves were analyzed using standard procedure. Final weight gain, total weight gain daily weight gain, (5.0g, T4 – 13.00g, T4gW0.75) daily supplement intake (44.65g, T4-91.54g, T1) and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.05) different across the treatments. Values for initial weights and forage intake, were not significantly different (P>0.05). Cost of supplement reduced significantly (P<0.05) from T1 to T4. Cost benefit ratio ranged from 0.79 (T2-1.63 (T4) and showed significance differences. This study indicated that cashew nut shell could be fed to growing West African dwarf goats up to 10% level of inclusion without adverse effects on feed intake, growth performance, and feed conversion ratio. Diets containing graded levels of cashew nut shell could also provide a cheaper source of feed, and also help to reduce environmental pollution.
Ocheja Josiah Omachi,
Usman Grace Ojali,
Ahmed Sule Hassanatu,
Boyi Prince Ufedojo,
Akoh Josiah Omale,
Adamu Abdulmajid Tsobaza,
Performance and Feed Bio Economics of Growing West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Steam-Treated Cashew Nut Shell, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Special Issue: Promoting Animal and Veterinary Science Research.
Vol. 8, No. 1,
2020, pp. 14-18.
Tchinda, B., Wegad, D. and Njwe, R. W. (1993). Rumen degradation of Elephant grass supplemented with graded levels of perennial peanut by West African Dwarf Sheep. In: Labbie, S. H. B, Rey, B. and Irangu, E. K. (Editors) Small ruminants Research and Development in Africa Proceedings of the second Biannual Conference of the African Small Ruminant Research Network AICC Arusha, Tanzania 7 -11 December 1992 ILCA/CTA. ILCA Addis Ababa, Pp. 187–190 http:1/wwwfao.onz/wairoes!iLRIx5472B!x5472b IIhtml.
Onwuka, C. F. I, Akinsoyinu, A. O. and Tewe, O. O (1987). Feed value of some Nigerian browse species: Chemical composition and In-vtro digestibility of leaves. East African Agricultuer and forestry Journal, 54: 157-163.
Bangani, N. M, Botha, J. A., Muller C. J. C. and Cruywagen, C. W. (2000). The production performance of lactating Jersey cows receiving varying levels of Lucerne hay and oat silage as roughage source. South African Journal of Animal Science, 3: 122-129.
Nouala, F. S., Akinbamijo, O. O., Adewumi, A., Hoffman, E., Muetzeh, S. and Becker, K. (2006). The influence of Moringaoleifera leaves as substitute to conventional concentrate on the gas production and digestibility of groundnut hay. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 18 (9): 31-37.
Adejinmi, O. O., Hamzat, R. A. and Fapohunda, J. B. (2007). Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed cocoa pod husk. Nigerian Journal of Animal production, 34 (1) 63-68.
Ifatimehin, O. O, Musa, S. D and Adeyemi J. O (2009). An analysis of the changing land use and its impact on the environment of Anyigba town, Nigeria. Journal of sustainable Development in Africa, 10 (4): 22-29.
Kowal, J. M. and Knabe, D. T. (1972). An Agroclimatological atlas of the Northern States of Nigeria Ahmadu Bello University Press Zaria. Pp. 23-25.
Okolo, F. A., Ocheja J. O, Lalabe B. C. and Ejiga, P. A. (2012). Digestibility, performance and bio-economics of growing West African Dwarf Goats fed diets containing graded levels of cashew nut shell. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, (IJARD), 15: 1000-1007.
AOAC (1995) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of Analysis 16th edition Washington, D. C. Pp. 1-20.
Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods of analysis for dietary neutral detergent fibre and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3597.
Lakpini, C. A. M., Adamu, A. M., Ehoche, O. W. and Gefu, J. O. (2002). Manual for Small Ruminant 8 Production in Nigeria. Compilation for a Training Workshop on Small Ruminant production held at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Zaria Nigeria 13th – 18th January 2002 Pp. 55-62.
Maithison, G. W., McAlhster, T. A., Cheng, K. J., Dong, Y., Galbraith, J. and Dmytruk, O. (1997). Methane emissions from farm animals. Abstract of workshop on green house Gas Research in Agriculture, Saint Foy March 12-14, Pp. 40-45.
Mafindi U. M, Kiben A. U Zaklag D. U and Buda I. G (2018) Growth performance of red Sokoto goats fed cowpea husk supplemented with graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaves. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science. 20 (2) 173-182.
Ngi, J. (2012). The nutritional potentials of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel meal for goat feeding. A Ph. D Thesis Submitted to the Department of Animal Production, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, 175 pp.
Adelusi I A, Ajibike, A. B Muriana, T. O, Alalade J. A and Oladejo O (2016) Performance and Digestility of West African dwarf Goats fed panicum maximum supplemented with Gmelina arborea leave mixture. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 18 (2): 518-524.
Oloche, J., Oluremi, O. I. A. and Ayoade, J. A. (2013). Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed diets containing graded levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel meal. In: Akpa C. N., Dairo, F. A. S, Bawa, G. S, Solomon, I. P., Amaefule, K. N, Oduns,
Arigbede, A. O., Adedeji, O. Y., Falola, O. O. and Saka, A. A. (2012). Performance characteristics and nutrient intake of West African Dwarf Goats fed cassava leaf hay- based diets. Proceeding 17th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Abuja 9th -13th September, 2012 Pp. 559-562.
Okpanachi U, Ayoade J. A and Tuleun C. D (2016) Carcass characteristics, internal organs and economics of feeding sun-dried yellow cashew pulp based diets to west African Dwarf Goats. Animaland veterinary science 4 (3-1): 1-6 June 2016.