Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 5-1, September 2015, Pages: 1-4
Received: Jan. 1, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 8, 2015;
Published: May 22, 2015
Views 5999 Downloads 248
Talha ELsadig Abbas, Department of Animal Production, University of ALneelain, Khartoum, Sudan
Mohamed Elamin Ahmed, Department of Animal Production, University of ALneelain, Khartoum, Sudan
Most of consumers preferring organic food accompanied emerge of environmental awareness in the last decades. Organic production system is considered as an important solution for the environment problems because it improves sustainable agriculture by using organic compounds and avoiding synthetic chemical ones, restricting intensive production and making the entire chain of production under control. Therefore, it is encouraged and supported by environmental protection agencies in spite of the higher production cost of organic production compounds. Due to its higher production cost most producers prefer intensive systems because they focus on reducing cost and increasing production regardless of environmental degradation. Organic poultry system usually mentioned with free-range system and poultry welfare. That is because all organic systems are free-range. Organic system gets a lot of attention of animal welfare organizations because it assists birds to express normal behavior by offering plenty space. Organic or free-range system by some modifications and developing of the system regarding good management of its environment in addition to establishment of biosecurity measures it could considered as a suitable system for human, poultry and environment rather than intensive system because it achieves human health by avoiding dangerous remainders in food such as chemical residues, and for poultry by offering good welfare and health, and also to environment by improving sustainable agriculture.
Talha ELsadig Abbas,
Mohamed Elamin Ahmed,
Poultry Meat Quality and Welfare as Affected by Organic Production System, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Special Issue: Poultry Welfare: Housing Systems and Feeding.
Vol. 3, No. 5-1,
2015, pp. 1-4.
World Bank. Minding the stock: Bringing public policy to bear on livestock sector development. Report No. 44010-GLB. Washington DC. 2009.
Stolze M, Piorr A, Häring A, Dabbert S. Organic Farming in Europe: Economics and Policy. University of Hohenheim/Department of Farm Economics, Stuttgart, Germany.2000; 15-22.
European Commission. Facts and figures on organic agriculture in the European Union. Agriculture and Rural Development, European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rural-area-economics/index_en.htm. 2013; 5-6.
Fanatico AC, Owens CM, Emmert JL. Organic poultry production in the United States: Broilers1. J Appl Poult Res. 2009; 18: 355-366.
Fanatico A. Organic poultry production in the United States. National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). ATTRA. www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/organicpoultry.pdf. 2008.
Lampkin N. Organic poultry production. Final report to MAFF. Welsh Institute of Rural Studies. University of Wales. Aberystwyth. 1997; 3-16.
Harper GC, Makatouni A. Consumer perception of organic food production farm animal welfare. Bri Food J. 2002; 104: 287-299.
Jens Christian R, Anders B, Charlotte V, Ainsh MC, Lone, F. Keeping village poultry. A technical manual for small-scale poultry production. Copenhagen, Denmark. 2004.
Shumba EM, Whingwiri EE. Prospects for increased livestock production in communal areas: An agronomist perspective. In: Research and Extension for Livestock in Communal Area Farming Systems. Henderson Research Station. Mazoe. Zimbabwe. 10-18 February. 1988
Mlozi MRS, Kalengi AVM, Minga UM, Mtambo AM, Olsen JE. Marketing of free-range local chickens in Morogoro and Kilosa urban markets, Tanzania. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2003; Vol. 15, Article 2 http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd15/2/mloz152.htm.
Adedeji OS, Ogunsina TK, Akinwumi AO, Ameen SA, Ojebiyi OO, Akinlade JA. Potential challenges to the adoption of organic poultry farming in Nigeria: A review. Iran J Appl Anim Sci. 2013; 3: 653-656.
Abbas TE. Poultry welfare in developed and developing countries. Anim Vet Sci. 2014; 2: 1-4.
Ponte PIP, Prates JAM, Crespo JP, Crespo DG, Mourão JL, Alves SP, Bessa RJB, Chaveiro-Soares MA, Gama LT, Ferreira LMA, Fontes CMGA. Restricting the intake of a cereal-based feed in free-range-pastured poultry: Effects on performance and meat quality. Poult Sci. 2008; 87: 2032-2042.
Chen X, Jiang W, Tan HZ, Xu GF, Zhang XB, Wei S, Wang XQ. Effects of outdoor access on growth performance, carcass composition and meat characteristics of broiler chickens1. Poult Sci. 2013; 92: 435-443.
Castellini C, Mugnai C, Dal Bosco A. Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat Quality. Meat Sci. 2002; 60: 219-225.
Betti M, Perez TI, Zuidhof MJ, Renema RA. Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 3. Fatty acid distribution between triacylglycerol and phospholipid classes. Poult Sci. 2009; 88: 1740-1754.
Bogosavljevic-Boskovic S, Mitrovic S, Djokovic R, Doskovic V, Djermanovic V. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing systems. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010; 27: 9069-9075.
Fanatico AC, Pillai PB, Hester PY, Falcone C, Mench JA, Owens CM, Emmert JL. Performance, livability and carcass yield of slow- and fast-growing chicken genotype fed low-nutrient or standard diets and raised indoors or with outdoor access. Poult Sci. 2008; 87: 1012-1021.
Mikulski D, Celej J, Jankowski J, Majewska T, Mikulska M. Growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of slower-growing and fast-growing chickens raised with and without outdoor access. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 2011; 24: 1407-1416.
Wang KH, Shi SR, Dou TC, Sun HJ. Effect of free-range raising system on growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality of slow-growing chicken. Poult Sci.2009; 88: 2219-2223.
Dou TC, Shi SR, Sun HJ, Wang KH. Growth rate, carcass traits and meat quality of slow-growing chicken grown according to three raising systems. Anim Sci Pap Rep. 2009; 27: 361-369.
Kirkwood JK. The importance of welfare. In: Welfare of the Laying Hen: Poultry Science Symposium Series. Vol. 27. (ed. Perry GC) CABI Publishing. CAB International. 2004; 1-7.
Dawkins MS. From an animal’s point of view: Motivation, fitness and animal welfare. Behav Brain Sci. 1990; 13: 1-9 (Abstract).
EFSA. The welfare aspects of various systems of keeping laying hens. EFSA J. 2005a ; 197: 1-23.
Moura DJ, Nääs IA, Pereira DF, Silva RBTR, Camargo GA. Animal welfare concepts and strategy for poultry production: a review. Braz J Poult Sci. 2006; 8: 137-147.
FAWC. Farm animal welfare: Health and disease. FAWC. London. UK. http://www.defra.gov.uk/fawc/. 2012.
Berg C. Health and welfare in organic poultry production. Acta Vet Scand. 2001; Suppl. 95: 37-45.
Lund V. Natural living – a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming. Livest Sci. 2006; 100: 71-83.
Lund V, Hemlin S, Lockeretz W. Organic livestock production as viewed by Swedish farmers and organic initiators. Agric Human Values. 2002; 19: 255-268.
Hayat A, Basheer A, Zahoor I, Mahmud A. Free-range rearing system and its impact on production and consumption of poultry: A review. Sci Inter (Lahore). 2014; 26: 1297-1300.
von Borell E, Sørensen JT. Organic livestock production in Europe: aims, rules and trends with special emphasis on animal health and welfare. Livest Prod Sci. 2004; 90: 3-9.
Harper GC, Henson SJ. Consumer concerns about animal welfare and the impact on food choice. The Final Report. EU FAIR CT98-3678. The University of Reading, Reading, UK. 2001; Pp 3-12.
Bestman MWP, Wagennar JP. Farm level factors associated with feather pecking in organic laying hens. Livest Prod Sci. 2003; 80: 133-140.
Nicol CJ, Pötzsch C, Lewis K, Green LE. Matched concurrent case-control study of risk factors for feather pecking in hens on free-range commercial farms in the UK. Bri Poult Sci. 2003; 44: 515-523.
Ferrante V. Welfare issues of modern laying hen farming. Ital J Anim Sci. 2009; 8 (Suppl 1): 175-189.
Halvorson D, Karunakaran D, Senne D, Kelleher C, Bailey C, Abraham A, Hinshaw V, Newman J. Epizootiology of Avian Influenza – simultaneous monitoring of sentinel ducks and turkeys in Minnesota. Avian Dis. 1982; 27: 77-85.
EFSA. Animal health and welfare aspects of Avian Influenza. EFSA J. 2005b ; 266: 1-12.
Thamsborg SM, Roepstorff A, Larsen M. Integrated and biological control of parasites in organic and conventional production systems. Vet Parasit. 1999; 84: 169-186.
Dal Bosco A, Mugnai C, Rosati A, Paoletti A, Caporali S, Castellini C. Effect of range enrichment on performance, behavior and forage intake of free-range chickens. J Appl Poult Res. 2014; 23: 137-145.