Membrane Heredity Composed by Symbiogenesis
Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 82-88
Received: Mar. 16, 2014; Accepted: Apr. 10, 2014; Published: Apr. 20, 2014
Views 2831      Downloads 118
Javeed Hussain, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China
Guangxiao Yang, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China
Guangyuan He, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Symbiogenesis overshadows the importance of other eukaryogenetic processes. By working on the endosymbiotic cellular heredity in its entirety, it transformed the eukaryotic world. This mini-review strived to produce a concise account of symbiogenetic heredity of membranes in eukaryotes. Symbiogenesis integrated the endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterium and cyanobacterium with the host, by utilising almost all the major prokaryotic components of membranes and protein translocation machinery along with a lot of eukaryotic inventions. It beautifully compartmentalized the eukaryotic cell by putting the prokaryotic membranes in continuity with the eukaryotic membranes and produced a whole spectrum of membrane topologies. Topogenesis of symbiogenetic hereditary membranes produced cell organelles with a diversity of metabolic capabilities. Development of protein translocation system manifests real ingenuity of symbiogenetic processes which integrates the working of entire compliment of cellular organelles. Protein translocation systems are also chimera of prokaryotic and eukaryotic components
Membrane Heredity, Symbiogenesis of Mitochondria, Symbiogenesis of Plastids, Membrane Chimera, Membrane Topology, Protein Import, Protein Translocation, Endosymbiosis
To cite this article
Javeed Hussain, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He, Membrane Heredity Composed by Symbiogenesis, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, pp. 82-88. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20140202.11
Cavalier-Smith T (2009) Predation and eukaryote cell origins: A coevolutionary perspective. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 41: 307-322.
Cavalier-Smith T (2006) Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 361: 969.
Cavalier-Smith T (2010) Deep phylogeny, ancestral groups and the four ages of life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365: 111-132.
Cavalier-Smith T (2010) Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biology Letters 6: 342-345.
Cavalier-Smith T (2010) Origin of the cell nucleus, mitosis and sex: roles of intracellular coevolution. Biology Direct 5.
Cavalier-Smith T (2013) Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa. European Journal of Protistology 49: 11-78.
Cavalier-Smith T (2013) Symbiogenesis: mechanisms, evolutionary consequences, and systematic implications. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 44: 145-172.
Cavalier-Smith T (2002) The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 297-354.
Cavalier-Smith T (2006) Origin of mitochondria by intracellular enslavement of a photosynthetic purple bacterium. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273: 1943-1952.
Brocks J, Logan G, Buick R, Summons R (1999) Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. Science 285: 1033-1036.
Green BR (2011) Chloroplast genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes. The Plant Journal 66: 34-44.
Reyes-Prieto A, Weber APM, Bhattacharya D (2007) The origin and establishment of the plastid in algae and plants. Annual Review of Genetics 41: 147-168.
Dyall SD, Brown MT, Johnson PJ (2004) Ancient invasions: From endosymbionts to organelles. Science 304: 253-257.
Cavalier‐Smith T (1987) The simultaneous symbiotic origin of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and microbodies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503: 55-71.
Cavalier-Smith T (1995) Membrane heredity, symbiogenesis, and the multiple origins of algae. Biodiversity and Evolution: 75-114.
Cavalier-Smith T (2000) Membrane heredity and early chloroplast evolution. Trends in Plant Science 5: 174-182.
Sonneborn TM (1963) Does preformed cell structure play an essential role in cell heredity. The Nature of Biological Diversity: 165-221.
Cavalier-Smith T (1991) The evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Fundamentals of Medical Cell Biology 1: 217-272.
Blobel G (1980) Intracellular protein topogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 77: 1496-1500.
Warren G, Wickner W (1996) Organelle inheritance. Cell 84: 395-400.
Dalbey RE, Robinson C (1999) Protein translocation into and across the bacterial plasma membrane and the plant thylakoid membrane. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 24: 17-22.
Cavalier-Smith T (2001) Obcells as proto-organisms: membrane heredity, lithophosphorylation, and the origins of the genetic code, the first cells, and photosynthesis. Journal of Molecular Evolution 53: 555-595.
Cavalier-Smith T (1982) The origins of plastids. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 17: 289-306.
Cavalier-Smith T (1983) Endosymbiotic origin of the mitochondrial envelope. Endocytobiology II: 265-279.
Cavalier-Smith T (2003) Genomic reduction and evolution of novel genetic membranes and protein-targeting machinery in eukaryote-eukaryote chimaeras (meta-algae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 358: 109-134.
Andersson SGE, Karlberg O, Canback B, Kurland CG (2003) On the origin of mitochondria: a genomics perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 358: 165-177.
Richly E, Leister D (2004) An improved prediction of chloroplast proteins reveals diversities and commonalities in the chloroplast proteomes of Arabidopsis and rice. Gene 329: 11-16.
Theissen U, Martin W (2006) The difference between organelles and endosymbionts. Current Biology 16: 1016-1017.
Stechmann A, Hamblin K, Perez-Brocal V, Gaston D, Richmond GS, et al. (2008) Organelles in Blastocystis that blur the distinction between mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. Current Biology 18: 580-585.
Gould SB, Waller RR, McFadden GI (2008) Plastid evolution. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 491-517.
Ralph SA, van Dooren GG, Waller RF, Crawford MJ, Fraunholz MJ, et al. (2004) Tropical infectious diseases: metabolic maps and functions of the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2: 203-216.
Cavalier-Smith T (1998) A revised six‐kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203-266.
Chen X, Schnell DJ (1999) Protein import into chloroplasts. Trends in Cell Biology 9: 222-227.
Keegstra K, Froehlich JE (1999) Protein import into chloroplasts. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2: 471-476.
Heins L, Collinson I, Soll J (1998) The protein translocation apparatus of chloroplast envelopes. Trends in Plant Science 3: 56-61.
Cavalier-Smith T (1999) Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: Euglenoid, Dinoflagellate, and Sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46: 347-366.
McFadden GI (1999) Endosymbiosis and evolution of the plant cell. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2: 513-519.
Keeling PJ (2013) The number, speed, and impact of plastid endosymbioses in eukaryotic evolution. Annual Review of Plant Biology 64: 583-607.
Sheiner L, Striepen B (2013) Protein sorting in complex plastids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research 1833: 352-359.
Stork S, Lau J, Moog D, Maier U-G (2013) Three old and one new: protein import into red algal-derived plastids surrounded by four membranes. Protoplasma: 1-11.
Stork S, Moog D, Przyborski JM, Wilhelmi I, Zauner S, et al. (2012) Distribution of the SELMA translocon in secondary plastids of red algal origin and predicted uncoupling of ubiquitin-dependent translocation from degradation. Eukaryotic Cell 11: 1472-1481.
Apt KE, Zaslavkaia L, Lippmeier JC, Lang M, Kilian O, et al. (2002) In vivo characterization of diatom multipartite plastid targeting signals. Journal of Cell Science 115: 4061-4069.
Gould SB, Sommer MS, Hadfi K, Zauner S, Kroth PG, et al. (2006) Protein targeting into the complex plastid of cryptophytes. Journal of molecular evolution 62: 674-681.
Hirakawa Y, Burki F, Keeling PJ (2011) Nucleus‐and nucleomorph‐targeted histone proteins in a chlorarachniophyte alga. Molecular Microbiology 80: 1439-1449.
Hirakawa Y, Gile GH, Ota S, Keeling PJ, Ishida K-i (2010) Characterization of periplastidal compartment-targeting signals in hlorarachniophytes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 1538-1545.
Hirakawa Y, Nagamune K, Ishida K-i (2009) Protein targeting into secondary plastids of chlorarachniophytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America 106: 12820-12825.
Kroth PG (2002) Protein transport into secondary plastids and the evolution of primary and secondary plastids. International Review of Cytology 221: 191-255.
Lang M, Apt KE, Kroth PG (1998) Protein transport into “complex” diatom plastids utilizes two different targeting signals. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273: 30973-30978.
Balsera M, Stengel A, Soll J, Bölter B (2007) Tic62: a protein family from metabolism to protein translocation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 43.
Jarvis P, Soll J (2001) Toc, Tic, and chloroplast protein import. BBA-Molecular Cell Research 1541: 64-79.
LV HX, Guo G, YANG ZN (2009) Translocons on the inner and outer envelopes of chloroplasts share similar evolutionary origin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 1418-1428.
Grambast LJ (1974) Phylogeny of the Charophyta. Taxon 23: 463-481.
Bogorad L (2000) Engineering chloroplasts: an alternative site for foreign genes, proteins, reactions and products. Trends in Biotechnology 18: 257-263.
Bohnsack MT, Schleiff E (2010) The evolution of protein targeting and translocation systems. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research 1803: 1115-1130.
Tartakoff AM, Tao T (2010) Comparative and evolutionary aspects of macromolecular translocation across membranes. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 42: 214-229.
Felsner G, Sommer MS, Gruenheit N, Hempel F, Moog D, et al. (2011) ERAD components in organisms with complex red plastids suggest recruitment of a preexisting protein transport pathway for the periplastid membrane. Genome Biology and Evolution 3: 140-150.
Hempel F, Bullmann L, Lau J, Zauner S, Maier UG (2009) ERAD-derived preprotein transport across the second outermost plastid membrane of diatoms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 1781-1790.
Bolte K, Gruenheit N, Felsner G, Sommer MS, Maier UG, et al. (2011) Making new out of old: Recycling and modification of an ancient protein translocation system during eukaryotic evolution. Bioessays 33: 368-376.
Martin W, Hoffmeister M, Rotte C, Henze K (2001) An overview of endosymbiotic models for the origins of eukaryotes, their ATP-producing organelles (mitochondria and hydrogenosomes), and their heterotrophic lifestyle. Biological Chemistry 382: 1521-1539.
Vellai T, Vida G (1999) The origin of eukaryotes: the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 266: 1571-1577.
Bagola K, Mehnert M, Jarosch E, Sommer T (2011) Protein dislocation from the ER. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes 1808: 925-936.
Nakatsukasa K, Brodsky JL (2008) The recognition and retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. Traffic 9: 861-870.
Sommer MS, Gould SB, Lehmann P, Gruber A, Przyborski JM, et al. (2007) Der1-mediated preprotein import into the periplastid compartment of chromalveolates? Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 918-928.
Spork S, Hiss JA, Mandel K, Sommer M, Kooij TW, et al. (2009) An unusual ERAD-like complex is targeted to the apicoplast of Plasmodium falciparum. Eukaryotic Cell 8: 1134-1145.
Agrawal S, van Dooren GG, Beatty WL, Striepen B (2009) Genetic evidence that an endosymbiont-derived endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system functions in import of apicoplast proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284: 33683-33691.
Gabaldón T (2010) Peroxisome diversity and evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365: 765-773.
Agne B, Meindl NM, Niederhoff K, Einwächter H, Rehling P, et al. (2003) Pex8p: an intraperoxisomal organizer of the peroxisomal import machinery. Molecular Cell 11: 635-646.
Schliebs W, Girzalsky W, Erdmann R (2010) Peroxisomal protein import and ERAD: variations on a common theme. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 11: 885-890.
Schlüter A, Fourcade S, Ripp R, Mandel JL, Poch O, et al. (2006) The evolutionary origin of peroxisomes: an ER-peroxisome connection. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23: 838-845.
Kalanon M, Tonkin CJ, McFadden GI (2009) Characterization of two putative protein translocation components in the apicoplast of Plasmodium falciparum. Eukaryotic Cell 8: 1146-1154.
Agrawal S, Striepen B (2010) More membranes, more proteins: complex protein import mechanisms into secondary plastids. Protist 161: 672-687.
van Dooren GG, Tomova C, Agrawal S, Humbel BM, Striepen B (2008) Toxoplasma gondii Tic20 is essential for apicoplast protein import. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 13574-13579.
Gabaldón T, Snel B, Van Zimmeren F, Hemrika W, Tabak H, et al. (2006) Origin and evolution of the peroxisomal proteome. Biology Direct 1: 8.
Budin I, Debnath A, Szostak JW (2012) Concentration-driven growth of model protocell membranes. Journal of the American Chemical Society 134: 20812-20819.
Cavalier-Smith T. The origin of cells: a symbiosis between genes, catalysts, and membranes; 1987. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. pp. 805-824.
Reyes-Prieto A, Weber A, Bhattacharya D (2007) The origin and establishment of the plastid in algae and plants. Annual Review of Genetics 41: 147-168.
Des Marais DJ (2000) When did photosynthesis emerge on Earth? Science 289: 1703-1705.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186