Improving Understanding of Microclimate Heterogeneity within a Contemporary Plant Growth Facility to Advance Climate Control and Plant Productivity
Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 167-178
Received: Sep. 1, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 17, 2014; Published: Sep. 30, 2014
Views 2655      Downloads 161
Authors
Evan Kutta, Department of Forestry, School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA
Jason Hubbart, Department of Forestry, Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Greenhouse crop production is maximized by maintaining optimal growing conditions. Accurate management of climate conditioning equipment based on measurements of the internal greenhouse microclimate is necessary to optimize crop production. Traditionally, greenhouse microclimate is monitored by a single suite of sensors located at a fixed (often central) location that is considered representative of the entire greenhouse climate. To advance greenhouse crop production additional sensors may better represent greenhouse microclimate heterogeneity and improve performance of climate conditioning equipment. However, elucidating the proper number and distribution of additional sensors requires investigation. Distributed high resolution air temperature (n = 63), relative humidity (n=63), and incoming solar radiation data were collected between May 9th, 2012 and September 5th, 2012 to test the efficacy of conventional centrally located sensors to characterize the spatial and temporal climate variability inside three contemporary greenhouse facilities. Results indicate substantial microclimate heterogeneity with mean horizontal temperature gradients of as much as 5.0°C/m, and mean horizontal VPD gradients of 1.5 kPa/m. Most substantially, the maximum vertical temperature gradient was 11.65°C/m. Results indicate that as few as five properly deployed sensor assemblages (e.g. temperature, humidity, solar radiation) may be necessary to more accurately monitor horizontal and vertical microclimate heterogeneity in a typical greenhouse room. This would improve climate conditioning accuracy and improve the homogeneity of the internal greenhouse climate, which may result in increased productivity and profits for greenhouse managers.
Keywords
Horticulture, Plant Productivity, Greenhouse Climate Control, Microclimate Heterogeneity
To cite this article
Evan Kutta, Jason Hubbart, Improving Understanding of Microclimate Heterogeneity within a Contemporary Plant Growth Facility to Advance Climate Control and Plant Productivity, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 167-178. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20140205.14
References
[1]
Gruda, N. 2005. Impact of Environmental Factors on Product Quality of Greenhouse Vegetables for Fresh Consumption. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24.3: 227-247.
[2]
Pawlowski, A., J.L. Guzman, F. Rodríguez, M. Berenguel, J. Sánchez, and S. Dormido. 2009. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control. Sensors 9.1: 232-252.
[3]
Bot, G.P.A. 2003. The Solar Greenhouse; Technology for Low Energy Consumption. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 611: 61-71.
[4]
Sethi, V.P., and S.K. Sharma. 2007. Survey of Cooling Technologies for Worldwide Agricultural Greenhouse Applications. Solar Energy 81.12: 1447-1459.
[5]
Kittas C., N. Katsoulas, and T. Bartzanas. 2012. Greenhouse Climate Control in Mediterranean Greenhouses. Journal of Agrifood Studies (CEA) 3: 89-114.
[6]
Kittas C., T. Bartzanas, A. Jaffrin. 2003. Temperature Gradients in a Partially Shaded Large Greenhouse Equipped with Evaporative Cooling Pads. Biosystems Engineering 85.1: 87-94.
[7]
Lopez, A., D. Valera, F. Molina-Aiz, and A. Pena. 2012. Sonic Anemometry to Evaluate Airflow Characteristics and Temperature Distribution in Empty Mediterranean Greenhouses Equipped with Pad-fan and Fog Systems. Biosystems Engineering 113: 334-350.
[8]
Kramer P.J., Boyer J.S. 1995. Transpiration and the Ascent of Sap. Water Relations of Plants and Soils. San Diego: Academic, 209.
[9]
Van Pee, M. and D. Berckmans, 1999. Quality of Modeling Plant Responses for Environment Control Purposes. Computers and Electronics in Agricuture. 22.2-3: 209-216.
[10]
Boulard, T. 2012. Recent Trends in Greenhouse Microclimate Studies and Contribution of CFDs. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 952: 739-748.
[11]
Grange, R.L., D.W. Hand. 1987. A Review of the Effects of Atmospheric Humidity on the Growth of Horticultural Crops. Journal of Horticultural Science 62: 125-134.
[12]
Baille, M., A. Baille, and D. Delmon. 1994. Microclimate and Transpiration of Greenhouse Rose Crops. Agricultural and Forest meteorology 71: 83-97.
[13]
Gholipoor M., S. Choudhary, T.R. Sinclair, C.D. Messina, M. Cooper, 2012. Transpiration Response of Maize Hybrids to Atmospheric Vapour Pressure Deficit. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 199.3: 155-160.
[14]
Gholipoor M., P.V.V. Prasad, R.N. Mutava, and T.R. Sinclair, 2010. Genetic variability of transpiration response to vapor pressure deficit among sorghum genotypes. Field Crops Research 119: 85–90.
[15]
Bunce, J.A. 2003. Effects of Water Vapor Pressure Difference on Leaf Gas Exchange in Potato and Sorghum at Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide Under Field Conditions Field Crops Research 82.1: 37-47.
[16]
Fletcher A.L., T.R. Sinclair, and L.H. Allen. Jr, 2007. Transpiration Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit in Well Watered ‘Slow Wilting’ and Commercial Soybean. Environmental and Experimental Botany 61: 145–151.
[17]
Hubbart, J., T. Link, C. Campbell, and D. Cobos. 2005. Evaluation of a Low-cost Temperature Measurement System for Environmental Applications. Hydrological Processes 19.7: 1517-1523.
[18]
Hubbart, J.A. 2011. An Inexpensive Alternative Solar Radiation Shield for Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity Micro-sensors. Journal of Natural and Environmental Sciences 2.2: 9-14.
[19]
Blandford T.R., K.S. Humes, B.J. Harshburger, B.C. Moore, V.P. Walden. 2008. Seasonal and Synoptic Variations in Near-Surface Air Temperature Lapse Rates in a Mountainous Basin. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 47: 249-261.
[20]
Guichard, S., C. Gary, C. Leonardi, N. Bertin. 2005. Analysis of Growth and Water Relations of Tomato Fruits in Relation to Air Vapor Pressure Deficit and Plant Fruit Load. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 24: 201-213.
[21]
Liu, F., Y. Cohen, M. Fuchs, Z. Plaut, and A. Grava. 2006. The effect of vapor pressure deficit on leaf area and water transport in flower stems of soil-less culture rose. Agricultural Water Management 81: 216-224.
[22]
Zar, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[23]
Buck, A.L. 1981. New Equations for Computing Vapor Pressure and Enhancement Factor. Journal of Applied Meteorology 20.12: 1527-1532.
[24]
Campbell, G.S., and Norman, J.M. 1998. Water Vapor and Other Gases. Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. New York: Springer. 37-50.
[25]
Akima,H. 1978. A method of bivariate interpolation and smooth surface fitting for irregularly distributed data point. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 4(2): 148-159.
[26]
Svoboda, M., D. LeComte, M. Hayes, R. Heim. 2002. The Drought Monitor. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 83.8: 1181-1190.
[27]
Baudoin, W.O., I.C. Denis, M. Grafiadellis, R. Jimenez, G. La Malfa, P.F. Martinez-Garcia. 1990. Protected cultivation in the Mediterranean climate. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, paper 90.
[28]
Abdel-Ghany, A.M., I.M. Al-Helal. 2011. Energy Partition and Conversion of Solar and Thermal Radiation into Sensible and Latent Heat in a Greenhouse under Arid Conditions. Energy and Buildings 43: 1740-1747.
[29]
Möller, M. 2002. The Effect of Insect-proof Nets on Exchange of Mass and Momentum in a Screenhouse for pepper Cultivation in Central Israel. Diploma Thesis, Department of Meteorology, TU Dresden.
[30]
Monteith, J., and M. Unsworth. 1990. Principles of Environmental Biophysics, 2nd edition. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 255.
[31]
Lopez, A., D. Valera, F. Molina-Aiz, and A Pena. 2010. Experimental Evaluation by Sonic Anemometry of Airflow in a Mediterranean Greenhouse Equipped with a pad-fan Cooling System. Transactions of the ASABE, 53(3), 945-957.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186