Evaluation of in Vitro Antioxidative, Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Rheum ribes Ethyl Acetate Extracts
Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 339-346
Received: Dec. 26, 2014; Accepted: Jan. 5, 2015; Published: Jan. 28, 2015
Views 3408      Downloads 296
Pembegul Uyar, Department of Biology, Selçuk Üniversity, Konya, Turkey
Nursen Coruh, Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Mesude İscan, Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Article Tools
Follow on us
Rheum species are medicinally important plants due to the presence of anthracene derivatives. This study was designed to determine the antioxidative, cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of Rheum ribes shoot and root ethyl acetate extracts using human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line as a model system. R. ribes shoot and root dry powder samples were prepared and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extracts were revealed to be a potential scavenger of DPPH radicals (IC50 value of 206.28 μg/ml for shoot and 10.92 μg/ml for root) and the chemical composition of the extracts was quantified by colorimetric determination of total phenol (GAE) and flavonoid (CAE) contents. HL–60 cells were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of extracts up to 72 h. R. ribes inhibited the survival of HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, shown by XTT assay. R. ribes caused HL-60 cells apoptosis via formation of phosphatidylserine externalization, as evidenced by flow cytometry. Exposure of HL-60 cells to higher concentrations of extracts for 72 h resulted in a shift of 87% of the cell population from normal to the early/late apoptotic stage. These findings suggest that Rheum ribes ethyl acetate root extracts exhibits potential antioxidant and cytotoxic properties against HL-60 cells better than shoot extracts and exert their toxicity via induction of apoptosis.
Rheum ribes, Antioxidant, HL-60, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis
To cite this article
Pembegul Uyar, Nursen Coruh, Mesude İscan, Evaluation of in Vitro Antioxidative, Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Rheum ribes Ethyl Acetate Extracts, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 339-346. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20140206.22
Abu-Irmaileh, B. E., & Afifi, F. U. (2003). Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on commonly used herbs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89, 193–197.
Awika, J. M., Rooney, L. W., & Waniska, R. D. (2005). Anthocyanins from black sorghum and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 90, 293–301.
Baydar, N. G., Ozkan, G., & Sagdic, O. (2004). Total phenolic contents and antibacterial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts. Food Chemistry, 15, 335–339.
Baytop, T. (1999). Rheum ribes L. In T. Baytop (Ed.). Therapy with medicinal plants in Turkey, Nobel Tıp Publication Press, 1, pp. 319–320).
Blois, M.S., (1958). Antioxidant determinations by use of a stable free radical. Nature, 181, 1199-1200 .
Cai, Y., Sun, M., Xing, J., & Corke, H. (2004). Antioxidant phenolic constituents in roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia: structure-radical scavenging activity relationships. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 52, 7884–7890.
Castañeda-Ovando, A., de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernández, Ma, Elena, Ma, Páez- Hernández, J. A., RodríguezGalán-Vidal, J. A., & Galán-Vidal, C. A. (2009). Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chemistry, 113, 859–871.
Collins, S.J., (1987). “The HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line: proliferation, differentiation, and cellular oncogene expression”, Blood, Vol 70, 1233-1244.
Cullen, J. (1966). Rheum L. In PH. Davis (Ed.). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2, 268–269.
Enayat, S,. Banerjee., S., 2009. Comparative antioxidant activity of extracts from leaves, bark and catkins of Salix aegyptiaca sp. Food Chemistry, Vol 116, 23-28
Fadok, V. A., Voelker, D.R., Campbell, P.A., Cohen, J.J., Bratton, D.L., Henson, P.M., (1992). “Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes triggers specific recognition and removal by macrophages”, Journal of Immunology, 148, 2207-2216.
Freshney, R. I., (2005). “Culture of Animal Cell: A manual of Basic Technique”, (5th Edition).
Gulcin, I., Oktay, M., Kirecci, E., & Kurevioglu, O. _I. (2003). Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food Chemistry, 83, 371–382.
Hollman, P. C. H., & Katan, M. B. (1999). Dietary flavonoids: Intake, health effects and bioavailability. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 37, 937–942.
Kashiwada, Y., Nonaka, G., Nishioka, I., & Yamagishi, T. (1988). Galloyl and hydroxycinnamoyl glucoses from Rhubarb. Phytochemistry, 27, 1473–1477.
Lapornik, B., Prosek, M., & Golc, Wondra. A. (2005). Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products us ing different solvents and extraction time. Journal of Food Engineering, 71, 214–222.
Li, P., Nijhawan, D., Budihardjo, I., Srinivasula, S.M., Ahmad, M., Alnemri, E.S. and Wang, X., 1997. “Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade”, Cell, Vol 91, 479–489.
Liu, Q., Cai, W., & Shao, X. (2008). Determination of seven polyphenols in water by high performance liquid chromatography combined with preconcentration. Talanta, 77, 679–683.
Mericli, A. H., & Tuzlacı, E. (1990). Constituents of Rheum ribes. Fitoterapia, 61, 375.
Özbek, H., Ceylan, E., Kara, M., Özgökce, F., & Koyuncu, M. (2004). Hypoglycemic effect of Rheum ribes roots in alloxan induced diabetic and normal mice. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science, 31, 113–115.
Ozgokce F, Ozcelik H (2004). Ethnobotanical aspects of some taxa in East Anatolia (Turkey), Econ. Bot. 58: 697-704.
Ozturk M., F. Aydogmus-Ozturk, M.E. Duru and G. Topcu, Antioxidant activity of stem and root extracts of Rhubarb (Rheum ribes) An edible medicinal plant, Food Chem 103 (2007), 623–630
Shokravi, A., & Agha Nasiri, K. (1997). Synthesis of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8- Octahydro-9-ethoxy-10-hydroxy-1-anthracenone (OEHA). Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 16, 10–15.
Singleton, R. Orthofer and R.M. Lamuela-Raventos, Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, Oxidants and Antioxidants
Tabata, M., Sezik, E., Honda, G., Yesilada, E., Fuki, H., Goto, K., et al. (1994). Traditional medicine in Turkey III. Folk Medicine in East Anatolica, Van and Bitlis provinces. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 32, 3–12.
Tosun, F., & Akyuz-Kızılay, C. (2003). Anthraquinones and flavonoids from Rheum ribes. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy Ankara, 32, 31–35.
Tsao, R., & Yang, R. (2003). Optimization of a new mobile phase to know the complex and real polyphenolic composition: Towards a total phenolic index using high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1018, 29–40.
Tuzlaci, E., & Mericli, A. H. (1992). Some studies on Is kın (Rheum ribes) and its distribution in Turkey. Proceedings of the 9th symposium on plant drugs (Pub No. 641, pp. 336–341). Eskis ehir, Turkey: Anatolia University Press.
Yesilada E, Sezik E, Honda G, Takaishi Y, Takeda Y, Tanaka T (1999). Traditional medicine in Turkey IX. Folk medicine in north-west Anatolia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 64: 195-210.
Zhishen, T. Mengcheng and W. Jianming, The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals, Food Chemistry 64 (4) (1999), 555–559.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186