Physiological and Chemical Characteristics of Age-Differed Ficus benjamina L. Trees Cultivated in El-ahassa, Saudi Arabia
Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages: 63-67
Received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: May 31, 2016; Published: Jun. 17, 2016
Views 3506      Downloads 137
Authors
Amal Fadl Ahmed Abdelkader, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, El-Ahassa, Saudi Arabia
Adnan Metab Aldughaish, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Faisal University, El-Ahassa, Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
For their biological importance, leaves from two foliage Ficus benjamina (F. benjamina) trees "90 and 120 days old" growing two meters close to each other were investigated and compared for their physiological and chemical content in response to environmental factors of El-Ahassa, Saudi Arabia. Mineral composition (Ca, Fe, K, Cu, Si and Zn), total phenols, flavonoids, tartaric esters and anthocyanins were quantified. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a & b and carotenoids), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed. Besides, their chemical profile was screened using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Our data showed an increased Ca, Fe and Zn content in leaves of younger trees and an increased K and Si in leaves of older ones. The Cu content was insignificantly higher in older trees. Total phenols, flavonoids, tartaric esters and anthocyanins of methanol-extracts were generally higher in 90 d compared to 120 d old trees. The photosynthetic pigments were higher in older tree whereas CAT and SOD were higher in younger trees. The GC-MS analysis identified similar chemical profile in both trees, although the concentration of some organic compounds has increased in the crude ethyl acetate-extract from 120d trees compared to 90d trees. Some of these compounds: glycerol 1, 2-diacetate, 1, 2, 3-propanetriol, 1, 2-diacetate, 1, 1, 2-Triacetoxyethane, phenol, 2, 4-bis (1, 1-dimethylene), pentanoic acid and others. We concluded that one month difference in age between two F. benjamina trees was a factor causing spectacular physiological and chemical changes. We also presume the high biological activity of 90 d fig trees compared to 120 d trees.
Keywords
Anthocyanins, Antioxidant Enzymes, Ficus Benjamina, GC-MS-Phenols, Tartaric
To cite this article
Amal Fadl Ahmed Abdelkader, Adnan Metab Aldughaish, Physiological and Chemical Characteristics of Age-Differed Ficus benjamina L. Trees Cultivated in El-ahassa, Saudi Arabia, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp. 63-67. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20160404.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Imran M, Rasool N, Rizwn K, Zubair M, Riaz M, Ul-Haq MZ, Rana U, Nafady A, Jaafar HZE (2014) Chemical composition and Biological studies of Ficus benjamina. Chemistry Central Journal. 8: 12.
[2]
Parajuli SP: Ethnobotanical studies of at khand bari muncipilty of Sankhuwasabha. Banko Janak. 2000, 10: 29-34.
[3]
Almahyl HA, Rahmani M, Sukarp MA, Ali AA (2003) Investigation on the chemical constituents of the leaves of Ficus elastica Roxb and their antimicrobial activity. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 11: 57–63.
[4]
Sirisha N, Sreenivasulu M, Sangeeta K, Chetty CM (2010) Antioxidant properties of Ficus species, a review. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 4: 2174-2182.
[5]
Lambers H, Timothy L (1998) Root Physiology: from Gene to Function. BOOK.
[6]
Tewari R. K., Kumar P., Sharma PN (2006) Antioxidant responses to enhanced generation of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in the copper-stressed mulberry plants, Planta 223: 1145-1153.
[7]
Pilon M, Abdel-Ghany S E, Cohu CM, Gogolin K A, Ye H (2006). Copper cofactor delivery in plant cells. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 9: 256–263.
[8]
Colme TD, Lehmann A, Rillig MC (2015) Arbuscular mycorrhizal contribution to copper, manganese and iron nutrient concentrations in crops- A meta-analysis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 81: 147-158.
[9]
Perez-Espinosa A, Moral, J. Moreno-Caselles R, Cortés A, Perez-Murcia MD, Gómez I (2005) Copper phyttoavailability for tomato in amended calcareous soils Bioresource Technology. 96: 649-655.
[10]
McGrath JM, Spargo J, Penn CJ (2014) Soil fertility and plant nutrition. Agriculture and Food Systems. 166-184.
[11]
Vernay P, Gauthier-Moussard C, Hitmi A (2007) Interaction of bioaccumulation of heavy metal chromium with water relation, mineral nutrition and photosynthesis in developed leaves of Lolium perenne L. Chemosphere. 68: 1563-1575.
[12]
Gautam P, Lai B, Triphathi R, Shahid M, Baig MJ, Maharana S, Puree C, Nayak AK (2016) Benificial effetcs of potassium application in improving submergence tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa). Environmental and Experimental Botany. 128: 18-30.
[13]
Shabala S, Anschütz U, Becket D (2014) Going beyond nutrition; Regulation of potassium homeostasis as a common denominator of plant adaptive response to environment. Journal of Plant Physiology. 171: 670-687.
[14]
Dick RP, Burns RG (1995) Enzymes in the Environment: Activity, Ecology, and Applications. Book.
[15]
Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006) Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends of Plant Science. 11, 392–397.
[16]
Adrees M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Zia-ur-Rehmen M, Ibrahim M, Abbas F, Farid M, Qayyum MF, Irshad MK (2015) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 119: 186-197.
[17]
Roohani N (2012) Human zinc nutrition in arid regions with zinc deficiency in soils and crops: A case study in central Iran. BOOK.
[18]
Broadley MR, White PJ, Hammond JP, Zelko I, Lux A (2007) Zinc in plants. New Phytologists. 173: 677-702.
[19]
Borneo R, Leon EA, Aguirre A, Ribotta P, Cantero JJ (2008) Antioxidant capacity of medicinal plants from the Province of Cordoba (Argentina) and their in vitro testing in model food system. Food Chemistry. 112: 664-670.
[20]
Metzner, H., Rau, H., Senger, H. 1965. Untersuchungen zur synchno-nisier-barkiet einzelner pigment mangel mutanten von. Chlorella, Planta. 65: 186.
[21]
MuKherjee SP, Choudhuri MA (1983) Implication of water stress-induced changes in the levels of endogeneous ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide in Vigna seedling. Physiolgia Plantarum 58: 166-170.
[22]
Dhindsa R, Plumb P, Thorpe T (1981) Leaf senescence correlated permeability, lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 32: 93-101.
[23]
Chen Y, Cao XD, Lu Y, Wang XR (2000) Effects of rare earth metal ions and their EDTA complexes on antioxidant enzymes of fish liver. Bull Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 65: 357-365.
[24]
Mazza G, Fukumoto L, Delaquis P, Girard B, Ewert B (1999) Anthocyanins, phenolics, and color of cabernet franc, merlot, and pinot noir wines from British Columbia. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 47: 4009–4017.
[25]
Pinto, E AA, Almeida, A. A. R. M, Aguiar, I. M. P. Ferreira L. V. O (2014). Changes in macrominerals, trace elements and pigments content during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth: influence of soil composition Food Chemistry 152: 603-611.
[26]
Ramirez BW (1970) Host specificity of Fig Wasps (Agaonidae). Evolution. 24: 680-691.
[27]
Janzen DH (1979) How to be a fig. Annual Review of. Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 10: 13-51.
[28]
Ceulemans R, Gabriels R, Impens I (1983) Effect of fertilization level on some physiologival, morphological, and growth characteristics of Ficus benjamina. Physiologia Plantarum. 59: 253-256.
[29]
Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH (1999) Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. 2 vols. Bishop Museum Special Publication 83, University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HI.
[30]
Oppenheimer HL, Bartlett RT (2000) New plant records from Maui, O'ahu, and Hawai'i Islands. Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 64: 1-10.
[31]
Yarmolinsky L, Huleihel M, Zaccai M, Ben-Shabat S (2012) Potent antiviral flavone glycosides from Ficus benjamina leaves. Fitoterapia. 83: 362-367.
[32]
Murthy N, Dharmarajan TS (2002) Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of copper (II) complexes with phenylglyoxal bis-(Thiosemicarbazones). Asian Journal of Chemistry. 14: 1325-1330.
[33]
Boeckx GM, Raeymaekers AHM, Sipido V, Turnhout O (1987) 4631278 Anti-protozoal alpha-aryl-4- (4, 5-dihydro- 3, 5-dioxo-1, 2, 4-triazin-2 (3h)-yl)-benzeneacetonitrile derivatives, pharmaceutical compositions, and method of use therefor: General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 14: Page vii.
[34]
Cappadoro AJ, Luna JA (2015) Development of an injection molded ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) intravaginal insert for the delivery of progesterone to cattle. Animal Reproduction Science. 158: 104-108.
[35]
Murkin AS, Manning KA, Kholodar SA (2014) Mechanism and inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase. Bioorganic Chemistry. 57: 171-185.
[36]
Gast, J. H. (1963) Some toxicity studies with triacetin. Federation Proceedings. 22, 368.
[37]
Zidan SM, Eleowa SA, Nasef MA, Abd-Almoktader MA, Elbatawy AM, Borhamy AG. Aboliela MA, Ali AM, Algamal MR (2015) Maximizing the safety of glycerol preserved human amniotic membrane as a biological dressing. Burns. 41: 1498-1503.
[38]
Nouha K, Kumar RS, R. D. Tyagi RD (2016) Heavy metals removal from wastewater using extracellular polymeric substances produced by Cloacibacterium normanense in wastewater sludge supplemented with crude glycerol and study of extracellular polymeric substances extraction by different methods. Bioresource Technology. 212: 120-129.
[39]
Luo X, Ge X, Cui S, Li Y (2016) Value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers. Bioresource Technology, In Press.
[40]
Vlacha M, Giannakas A, Katapodis P, Stamatis H, Ladavos A, Barkoula NM (2016) On the efficiency of oleic acid as plasticizer of chitosan/clay nanocomposites and its role on thermo-mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties-Comparison with glycerol. Food Hydrocolloids. 57: 10-19.
[41]
Swinnen S, Wei Ho P, Klein M, Nevoigt E (2015) Genetic determinants for enhanced glycerol growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metabolic Engineering. 36: 68-79.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186