Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 5, October 2019, Pages: 117-124
Received: Sep. 15, 2019;
Accepted: Oct. 7, 2019;
Published: Oct. 20, 2019
Views 341 Downloads 183
Xiaodong Jia, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
Huiting Luo, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
Mengyang Xu, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
Gang Wang, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
Jiping Xuan, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
Zhongren Guo, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
Pecan had been introduced into China for over one hundred years and had raised great attentions as a woody oil crop these years, but the detailed nut qualities of pecan cultivars grown in China had not been evaluated before. To access the adaptabilities of different pecan cultivars after introduce and for future utilization of these cultivars, the pecan nut quality had been evaluated in this article. Both physical and chemical nut quality traits were evaluated on Chinese-grown pecan cultivars, including nut weight, nut shape, shell thickness, kernel, lipid, fatty acid content, tocopherol content, antioxidant capacities of lipids, phenolics contents and their antioxidant capacities. Great variability existed among different cultivars in most of the nut quality traits. After introduced, physical traits changed in different ways, which suggested that cultivars have different adaptabilities. Cultivars 'Desirable', 'Western' or 'Kanza' are high in oleic acid, while cultivar 'Pawnee' is high in γ-tocopherol. Cultivar 'Mahan' had significant high values of total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), ellagic acid content and antioxidant capacity of defatted kernel compared to other cultivars, which made it an suitable material for further study of phenolics in pecan. This article provided detailed analyses of the nut qualities of Chinese-grown pecan cultivars for the first time, which can be useful for future studies.
Investigation of Nut Qualities of Pecan Cultivars Grown in China, Journal of Plant Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 5,
2019, pp. 117-124.
R. Zhang, F. Peng and Y. Li, Pecan production in China, Sci Hortic-Amsterdam, 197 (2015) 719-727.
X. H. Yao, J. Chang and K. L. Wang, The research proceeding of pecan in China, Science Press, Beijing, 2014.
X. Jia, H. Luo, M. Xu, M. Zhai, Z. Guo, Y. Qiao and L. Wang, Dynamic changes in phenolics and antioxidant capacity during pecan (Carya illinoinensis) kernel ripening and its phenolics profiles, Molecules, 23 (2018) 435.
X. Jia, T. Wang, M. Zhai, Y. Li and Z. Guo, Genetic diversity and identification of Chinese-grown pecan using ISSR and SSR markers, Molecules, 16 (2011) 10078-10092.
I. Bouali, H. Trabelsi, I. B. Abdallah, A. Albouchi, L. Martine, S. Grégoire, G. Bouzaien, M. Gandour, S. Boukhchina and O. Berdeaux, Changes in fatty acid, tocopherol and xanthophyll contents during the development of Tunisian-grown pecan nuts, J Am Oil Chem Soc, 90 (2013) 1869-1876.
J. E. Villarreal-Lozoya, L. Lombardini and L. Cisneros-Zevallos, Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of different pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars, Food Chem, 102 (2007) 1241-1249.
K. S. Robbins, Y. Gong, M. L. Wells, P. Greenspan and R. B. Pegg, Investigation of the antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of U.S. pecans, J Funct Foods, 15 (2015) 11-22.
J. Chun, J. Lee and E. R. R, Effects of variety and crop year on tocopherols in pecans, J Food Sci, 67 (2002) 1356-1359.
A. Azzi and A. Stocker, Vitamin E: non-antioxidant roles, Prog Lipid Res, 39 (2000) 231-255.
G. W. Burton, A. Joyce and K. U. Ingold, First proof that vitamin E is major lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in human blood plasma, Lancet, 8 (1982) 292-327.
J. F. Toro-Vazque, M. A. Charó-Alonso and F. Pérez-Briceño, Fatty acid composition and its relationship with physicochemical properties of pecan (Carya illinoensis) oil, J Am Oil Chem Soc, 76 (1999) 957 - 965.
K. S. Robbins, Y. Ma, M. L. Wells, P. Greenspan and R. B. Pegg, Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from U.S. pecans by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, J Agr Food Chem, 62 (2014) 4332-4341.
Y. Gong and R. B. Pegg, Separation of ellagitannin-rich phenolics from U.S. pecans and Chinese hickory nuts using fused-core HPLC columns and their characterization, J Agr Food Chem, 65 (2017) 5810-5820.
X. Wu, G. R. Beecher, J. M. Holden, D. B. Haytowitz, S. E. Gebhardt and R. L. Prior, Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States, J Agr Food Chem, 52 (2004) 4026-4037.
J. Yang, R. H. Liu and H. Linna, Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common edible nut seeds, LWT-Food Sci Technol, 42 (2009) 1-8.
J. Corthout, L. A. Pieters, M. Claeys, D. A. Vanden Berghe and A. J. Vlietinck, Antiviral ellagitannins from Spondias mombin, Phytochemistry, 30 (1991) 1129-1130.
H. M. Abdallah, M. M. Salama, E. H. Abd-elrahman and S. A. El-Maraghy, Antidiabetic activity of phenolic compounds from Pecan bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Phytochemlett, 4 (2011) 337-341.
S. D. Senter, R. J. Horvat and W. Forbus, Relation between phenolic acid content and stability of pecans in accelerated storage., J Food Sci, 45 (1980) 1380-1382.
Pecan cultivars, alphabetic search by cultivar name, URL http://cgru.usda.gov/carya/pecans/cvintro.htm (accessed on 6 September 2019).
W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier and C. Berset, Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol., 28 (1995) 25-30.
L. A. de la Rosa, E. Alvarez-Parrilla and F. Shahidi, Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of kernels and shells of Mexican pecan (Carya illinoinensis), J Agr Food Chem, 59 (2011) 152-162.
A. C. P. D. Prado, B. A. Manion, K. Seetharaman, F. C. Deschamps, D. Barrera Arellano and J. M. Block, Relationship between antioxidant properties and chemical composition of the oil and the shell of pecan nuts [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch], Ind Crop Prod, 45 (2013) 64-73.
A. A. Salvador, R. Podest, J. M. Block and S. R. S. Ferreira, Increasing the value of pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] cake by means of oil extraction and antioxidant activity evaluation, J Supercrit Fluid, 116 (2016) 215-222.
H. Miraliakbari and F. Shahidi, Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils, Food Chem, 111 (2008) 421-427.
L. A. de la Rosa, A. A. Vazquez-Flores, E. Alvarez-Parrilla, J. N. Rodrigo-Garc A, O. N. Medina-Campos, A. Vila-Nava, S. Gonz Lez-Reyes and J. Pedraza-Chaverri, Content of major classes of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell protective activity of pecan crude extracts and their fractions, J Funct Foods, 7 (2014) 219-228.
C. Alasalvar and B. W. Bolling, Review of nut phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives, antioxidant components and health effects, BRIT J NUTR, 113 (2015) S68-S78.
M. A. Flores-Cordova, E. Sanchez, E. Munoz-Marquez, D. L. Ojeda-Barrios, J. M. Soto-Parra and P. Preciado-Rangel, Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity in Mexican pecan nut, Emir J Food Agr, 29 (2017) 346-350.
C. J. Rudolph, G. V. Odell, H. A. Hinrichs, D. A. Hopfer and S. J. Kays, Genetic, environmental, and maturity effects on pecan kernel lipid, fatty acid, tocopherol, and protein composition, J Food Quality, 15 (1992) 263-278.
K. S. Robbins, E. C. Shin, R. L. Shewfelt, R. R. Eitenmiller and R. B. Pegg, Update on the Healthful Lipid Constituents of Commercially Important Tree Nuts, J Agr Food Chem, (2011) 12083-12092.
M. L. Price, S. V. Scoyoc and L. G. Butler, A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain, J Agr Food Chem, 26 (1978) 1214-1218.