Impairment of Ovarian and Uterine Cellular Architecture, Total Protein Content: A Consequence of Lead Nitrate Induced Increased Free Radical Load
Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2015, Pages: 49-55
Received: Sep. 2, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 16, 2015;
Published: Sep. 28, 2015
Views 3442 Downloads 108
Seema Rai, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
Muddasir Basheer, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
Deepika Acharya, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
Hindole Ghosh, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
Pritam Bhattacharya, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
A significant decrease in weight of ovary and oviduct of female rats was noted following lead nitrate administration with a dose 80 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. Histomicrogaphs of ovary showed marked inhibition of follicular growth as judged by gradual decrease oocyte size, absence of theca and granulosa layer, resulting absence of graafian follicle. Oviduct showed shrinkage in lumen and damage in perimetrium cells. Increase in total protein of ovary and oviduct after lead nitrate treatment denoting changes at translational level of concern gene to prevent the normal physiology. A significant increase in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of both tissues denotes increased free radical load resulted in the damage of cellular architecture. Findings, suggest that lead entering to the biological system via environment and other widely used industrial product may interfere with the normal reproductive physiology and folliculogenesis could be one of the cause of female infertility.
Impairment of Ovarian and Uterine Cellular Architecture, Total Protein Content: A Consequence of Lead Nitrate Induced Increased Free Radical Load, Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 49-55.
H. M. Perry, E. F. Perry, M. W. Erlanger, D. D. Hemphill, Trace Substances in Environmental Health. 3 (1974) 51.
E. C. Foulkes, Biological effects of heavy metals, Vol. II, Metal Carcinogenesis U. R. C. Press, Boston, 1990.
K. Soltanianejad, A. Kebriaeezadeh, B. Minaiee, Biochemical and ultrastructural evidences for toxicity of lead through free radicals in rat brain, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 22 (2003) 417-433.
D. C. Bellinger, Very low lead exposures and children’s neurodevelopment current opinion in Pediat. 20 (2008) 172-177.
M. De Marco, R. Halpern, H. M. T. Barros, Early behavioral effects of lead perinatal exposure in rat pups, Toxicol. 211 (2005) 49- 58.
T. T. Adeniyi, G. O. Ajayi, O. A. Akinloye, Effect of Ascorbic acid and Allium sativum on tissue lead in female Rattus navigicus, Niger. J. Health Biomed. Sci. 7 (2008) 38-41.
T. L. Bunn, G. S. Ladics, M. P. Holsapple, Developmental immunotoxicology assessment in the rat. Age, gender and strain comparisons after exposure to Pb. Toxicol. Met. 11 (2001) 41-58.
C. E. Rosenberg, N. E. Fink, A. Salibian, Humoral immune alterations caused by lead. Studies on an adults lead model, Acta. Toxicol. Argent. 15 (2007) 16-23.
I. Vargas, C. Castillo, F. Posadas, Acute lead exposure induces renal heme oxygenase-1 and decreases urinary Na+ excretion, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 22 (2003) 237-244.
S. K. Rastogi, Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure, Ind. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 12 (2008) 103-106.
V. Sharma, S. Sharma, Pracheta, R. Paliwal, S. H. Sharma, Therapeutic efficacy of Withania somnifera root extract in the regulation of lead nitrate induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice, J. Pharm. Res. 4 (2011) 755-758.
R. C. Patra, D. Swarup Effect of lead on erythrocyte antioxidant defence, lipid peroxide level and thiol groups in calves, Res. Vet. Sci. 68 (2000) 71-74.
H. M. Mousa, A. A. Al- Qarawi, B. H. Ali, H. A. Abdula Rahman, S. A. Elmougy, Effect of lead exposure on the erythrocytic antioxidant levels in goat, J. Vet. Med.49 (2002) 531-534.
J. K. Sangha, N. Kaur, J. Singh, Extent of heavy metal toxicity in the diet of school boys of Ludhiana, J. Res. Punjab. Agric. Univ. 38 (2001) 124–9.
S. J. S. Flora, G. Flora, G. Saxena. Environmental occurrence, health effects and management of lead poisoning, (In: Jose, S. C, Jose, S., eds. Lead. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.). (2006). 158–228.
J. M. Pearce, Burton’s line in lead poisoning, Eur. neurol. 57 (2007) 118–9.
B. H. Alexander, H. Checkoway, E. M. Faustman, C. van Netten, C. H. Muller, T. G. Ewers, Contrasting associations of blood and semen lead concentrations with semen quality among lead smelter workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 34 (1998) 464-9.
L. Eibensteiner, A. Del Carpio Sanz, H. Frumkin, C. Gonzales, G. F. Gonzales, Lead exposure and semen quality among traffic police in Arequipa, Peru, Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health. 11 (2005) 161-6.
D. Lerda, Study of sperm characteristics in persons occupationally exposed to lead, Am. J. Ind. Med. 22 (1992) 567-71.
S. J. S. Flora, V. Pachauri, G. Saxena. Arsenic, cadmium and lead. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. (Academic Press), (2011) 415–438.
H. A. Saleh, G. A. El-Aziz, M. M. El-Fark, M. El-Gohary, Effect of maternal lead exposure on craniofacial ossification in rat fetuses and the role of antioxidant therapy, Anat. Histol. Embryol. 38 (2009) 392–399.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Toxicological Profile for Lead. (2007). US Department of Health and Human Services: Atlanta, US.
B. L. Gulson, K. J. Mizon,M. J. Korsh, J. M. Palmer, J. B. Donnelly, Mobilization of lead from human bone tissue during pregnancy and lactation: A summary of long-term research, Sci. Total Environ. 303 (2003) 79-104.
J. Xu, L. Ling-jun, W. U. Chen, W. Xiao-feng, F. U. Wen-yu, X. Lihong, Lead induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alteration of p53, Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in mice, Food. Chem. Toxicol. 46 (2008) 1488-1494.
T. I. Lidsky, J. S. Schneider, Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates, Brain. 126 (2003) 5–19.
R. L. Heath, and L. Packer, Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation, Arch. of Biochem. and Biophy.. 125 (1968) 189.198.
S. Rai, C. Haldar, R. Singh, Modulation of immunity in young-adult and aged squirrel, Funambulus pennanti by melatonin and p-chlorophenylalanine, Immunity & Ageing. 6 (2009) 5. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4933-6-5.
O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, R. Randall, Protein measurements with the Folin phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193 (1951)265–80.
W. J. Welch, How cell respond to stress, Scientific Amer. 268 (1993) 34–41.
V. Dhir, P. Dhand, Toxicological Approach in Chronic Exposure to Lead on Reproductive Functions in Female Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), Toxicol. Inter. 17 (2010) 1–7.
D. Y. Yu, W. F. Li, B. Deng, X. F. Mao, Effects of lead on hepatic antioxidant status and transcription of superoxide dismutase gene in pigs, Biol. Trac. Elem. Res. 126 (2008) 121-128.
T. Suzuki, N. Sugino, T. Fukaya, S. Sugiyama, T. Uda, R. Takaya, A. Yajima and H. Sasano, Superoxide dismutase in normal cycling human ovaries: immunohistochemical localization and characterization, Fertil. Steril. 72 (1999) 720-726.
M. J. Ronis, T. M. Badger, S. J Shema, P. K. Roberson, F. Shaik, Effects on pubertal growth and reproduction and reproduction in rats exposed to lead perinatally or continuously throughout development, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 13 (1998) 327–41.
R. Der, Z. Fahim, D. Hilderbrand, M. Fahim, Combined effect of lead and less protein on growth, sexual development and metabolism in female rats, Res Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 9 (1985) 723– 38.
P. S. Barry, A comparison of concentrations of lead in human tissues, Br. J. Ind. Med. 32 (1975) 119-139.
D. H. Hamer, Metallothionein, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 55(1986) 913-951.
O. B. Akpor, G. O. Ohiobor, T. D. Olaolu, Heavy metal pollutants in wastewater effluents: Sources, effects and remediation, Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering.2 (2014) 37-43.
J. Balasubramanian, A. Kumar, Study of effect of sodium arsenite on lipid metabolism of Heteropneustes fossilis and the chelating effect of zeolite, Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering.1 (2013) 22-27.