Progress of Research on Spatzle and Toll Signaling Pathway in Insects
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2015, Pages: 134-141
Received: Dec. 3, 2015;
Published: Dec. 3, 2015
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Ji Liu, College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu Universitiy of Scence and Technology, Zhenjiang, China
Jinmei Wu, College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu Universitiy of Scence and Technology, Zhenjiang, China; The Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, China
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Insects are the most diverse group of animals on Earth. Contrary to the vertebrates, insects have no acquired immunity, and to resist the invasion of external microbes, they can only rely on their own innate immunity. Innate immunity is the first line of defense in organisms. When microbia invade, a group of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRR) can recognize and bind to conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) , and then the host activates multiple signaling pathways to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Toll signaling pathway is the most actively studied signaling pathway. Toll and its ligand Spatzle play an important role in Toll pathway of the immune response. The structure and function of spatzle in Drosophila, Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori and other insects have been reviewed in this article. The results suggested that spatzle from different insects have conserved structure and similar activation mechanism and plays an important role in the initiation of Toll signaling pathway. This provides a theoretical basis for research on spatzle and Toll signaling pathway in other insects.
Insects, Innate Immunity, Humoral Immunity, Spatzle, Toll Pathway
To cite this article
Progress of Research on Spatzle and Toll Signaling Pathway in Insects, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 134-141.