Effect of Fermentation (Natural and Starter) on the Physicochemical, Anti-nutritional and Proximate Composition of Pearl Millet Used for Flour Production
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 12-16
Received: Oct. 31, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 16, 2017; Published: Feb. 10, 2017
Views 4548      Downloads 257
Authors
Onuoha Elizabeth Chinenye, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Orukotan Abimbola Ayodeji, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Ameh Joseph Baba, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Fermentation of foods has been practiced for improving the flavor, texture and palatability of foods. Fermentation also leads to an increase in protein content, enhancement of carbohydrate accessibility, decrease of antinutritional factors like tannin and phytic acid. This study was carried out to determine the effect of fermentation on the physicochemical, antinutrients and nutritional composition with the aim of producing flour from Pearl millet (Sosart 1). Sterile millet grains were inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum using a 0.5 McFarland standard while a different batch of millet grains were steeped in water without an inoculum; they were allowed to ferment for 4 days. The pH values of the fermenting samples were analyzed daily. Results obtained showed that the pH values for starter and natural fermentation were between 3.64-3.48 and 4.94-4.55 respectively. These were accompanied with a gradual increase in total titratable acidity with values of 0.090- 0.819 and 0.317- 0.756 for both starter and natural fermentation respectively. Evaluation of grain anti-nutritional composition showed that the phytate and tannin were significantly decreased by fermentation. The nutritional compositions of the grains were also improved by fermentation resulting in protein and moisture content increase. Fermentation has proved to have a potential to improve protein and decrease antinutrient contents of pearl millet for production of flour. This can be incorporated in the formulation of weaning foods and production of confectioneries for both children and adults.
Keywords
Fermentation, Pearl Millet, Lactobacillus plantarum, Proximate, Physicochemical
To cite this article
Onuoha Elizabeth Chinenye, Orukotan Abimbola Ayodeji, Ameh Joseph Baba, Effect of Fermentation (Natural and Starter) on the Physicochemical, Anti-nutritional and Proximate Composition of Pearl Millet Used for Flour Production, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 12-16. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20170501.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Ranasalva, N. and Visvanathan R. (2014). Development of cookies and bread from cooked and fermented pearl millet flour. African Journal of Food Science. 8 (6): 330-336.
[2]
Chandrasekara, A. and. Shahidi, F (2010). Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 58: 6706–6714.
[3]
Nor, A. M., Wan, Z., Wan, I. and Amar, S. (2015). Effects of protein content in selected fish towards the production of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus spp) during production of Pekasam. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science, 3 (3).
[4]
Elkhalifa, E. O., Schiffler, B. and Bernhard, R. (2004). Effect of fermentation on the starch digestibility, resistant starch and some physicochemical properties of sorghum Flour. African Journals online, 48: 91 – 94.
[5]
Osman, M. A. (2004). Change in sorghum enzyme inhibitors phytic acid, tannins and in vitro protein digestibility occurring during Khamir (local bread) fermentation. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 88: 129-134.
[6]
Correia, A., Nunes, S. and Guedes, A. S. (2010) Screening of lactic acid bacteria potentially useful for sorghum fermentation. Journal of Cereal Science, 52: 9-15.
[7]
Onweluzo, J. C. and Nwabugwu, C. C. (2009). Fermentation of millet (Pennisetumamericanum) and pigeon pea (Cajanuscajan) seeds for flour production: Effects on composition and selected functional properties. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8 (6): 737-744.
[8]
Omemu A. M., Oyewole O. B., Bankole,M. O and Akintokun, A. K. (2007) yeast and moulds associated with Ogi-a cereal base waning food during storage. Research Journal of Microbiology.2 (2) 141-148.
[9]
Anthony. O and Babatunde B. (2014) Effect of Fermentation on Nutrient and Antinutrients composition of millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and soya bean (Glycine max) blend of flours. Journal of Life Sciences Vol 8 (8) pp 668-675
[10]
AOAC (2006). Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D. C.
[11]
AOAC, (2005). Official Methods for Analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical chemists, Washington D.C.
[12]
Nkama, I. and Gbenyi, D. I. (2001). The effect of malting of millet and sorghum on the residual phytate and polyphenols in Dakuwa-a Nigerian cereal-legumes snack food. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, pp: 270-275.
[13]
Wakil, S. M and Kazeem, M. O. (2012). Quality assessment of weaning food produced from fermented cereal-legume blends using starters. International Food Research Journal 19 (4): 1679-1685.
[14]
Inyang, C. D and Idoko, C. A.(2006). Assessment of the quality of Ogi made from malted millet. African Journal of Biotechnology (5): 2334-2337.
[15]
Apena A., Opeolu S. O., Bamidele. F. A. and Shittu, A., 2015. Nutrient changes during fermentation of some selected cereals. Sky Journal of Biochemistry Research. 4 (2): 10–12.
[16]
Adegbehingbe, K. T. (2015) Effect of starter cultures on the anti-nutrient contents, minerals and viscosity of Ogwo, a fermented sorghum–Irish potato gruel. International Food Research Journal 22 (3): 1247-1252.
[17]
Gernah, O. I, Ariahu, C. C and Ingbian, E. K (2011). Effect of Malting and Lactic Fermentation on Some Chemical and Functional Properties of Maize (Zea mays). American Journal of Food Technology 6 (5): 404-412.
[18]
Fasasi, O. S (2009). Proximate, Antinutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Processed Millet Flour. Journal of Food Technology 7 (3): 92-97.
[19]
Elyas, S. H., El-Tinay, A. H., Yosif, N. E. and Elsheikh, E. A., (2002). Effect of fermentation on nutritive value and in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry. 78, 75–79.
[20]
Inyang, C. U. and Zakari, U. M. (2008). Effect of germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate, chemical and sensory properties of instant, Fura–Nigerian cereal food. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7: 9–12.
[21]
Ali, A. M., El-Tinay, H. A. and Abdalla, H. A., (2003). Effect of fermentation on the in vitro digestibility of pear millet. Food Chem. 80, 51–54.
[22]
Hassan, A. B., Mohamed Ahmed, I. A., Osman, N. M., Eltayeb, M. M., Osman, G. A. and Babiker, E. E. (2006). Effect of processing treatment followed by fermentation on protein content and digestibility of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 5 (1): 86–89.
[23]
EL Hag, M. E., El Tinay, A. H. and Yousif, N. E., (2002). Effect of fermentation and dehulling on starch, total polyphenols, phytic acid and in vitro digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry. 77, 193–196.
[24]
Afoakwa, E. O., Sefa-Deheh, S., Kluvitse, Y and Sakyi-Dawson, E. O (2004). “The Influence of Fermentation and Cowpea Fortification on the Quality Characteristics of Maize-based Weaning Foods.” Presented at the Second International Workshop on Food-based Approaches for Healthy Nutrition in West Africa: The Role of Food Technologists and Nutritionists, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
[25]
Chikwendu J. N, Obiakor, O. P and Maduforo, A. N (2014). Effect of Fermentation on the nutrient and antinutrients composition of African yam bean (sphenosty lisstenocarpa) seeds and Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) grain. International Journal of Science and Technology vol (2): 169-173.
[26]
Ahmed, B. M., Hamed, R. A., Ali, M. A., Hassan A. B. and Babiker, E. E. (2009). Proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fraction of Guar seeds as influenced by processing treatments. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition5: 481-484.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186