Frequency Dependant and Frequency Independent Selection of Wild Birds When Presented with Artificial Prey and Whether Selection Pressures Are Present
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 88-91
Received: Sep. 13, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 27, 2017; Published: Nov. 2, 2017
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Author
Sarah Jayne Drinkwater, Biological Sciences, The Open University, Oxford, United Kingdom
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Abstract
Genetic variation of a prey population can be affected by a range of variables, one of which is wild birds. Many species of prey population are polymorphic and wild birds hunt by sight which may means they select one morph of their prey over the other. The aim of this investigation is to use artificial prey to examine whether birds in an urban area, such as a garden of a residence, operate via selection pressures. 20 trials in total were performed. 10 trials with 45 yellow balls and 5 red balls were presented (ratio 9 yellow: 1 red) followed by 10 trials of 45 red balls and 5 yellow balls (ratio 9 red: 1 yellow). The bird population showed evidence of operating under significant frequency-dependant selection but not under significant frequency independent selection. The results show we can reject the null hypothesis that wild birds do not exhibit selection preferences due to the colour and frequency of the artificial prey, however, the null hypothesis can be accepted when in reference to frequency dependant selection. The birds showed no preference to which colour was rare, just that if that colour was the rare colour at the time, they select it over the common.
Keywords
Genetic Variation, Selection Pressures, Frequency Independent, Dependant, Wild Birds, Artificial Prey, Mann Whitney U Test, Selection
To cite this article
Sarah Jayne Drinkwater, Frequency Dependant and Frequency Independent Selection of Wild Birds When Presented with Artificial Prey and Whether Selection Pressures Are Present, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 88-91. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20170504.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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