Lead, Cadmium and Iron Concentrations in Zea Mays Grown Within the Vicinity of Ori-Ile Battery Waste Dumpsite, Olodo, Ibadan, Nigeria
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 92-103
Received: Aug. 25, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 8, 2017; Published: Nov. 3, 2017
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Authors
Adedotun Onoyinka Afolayan, Tissue Culture/Biotechnology Unit, National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Amusat Titilayo Hassan, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
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Abstract
Agricultural produce resulting from the cultivation of polluted soil can result in undue exposure and health hazards for its consumers at different level along the food chain. Available literature has shown that maize absorbs and accumulates toxic heavy metals from polluted soils. This study was designed to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and iron (Fe) within the leaf, stem, grains and root of maize grown on Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Olodo, Ibadan Nigeria. Soil samples were collected every two months (March 2008 to July 2009) from the waste dumpsite and along the direction of the garden at 5m interval from the edge of the waste dump site. To determine the levels of uptake and accumulation of Pb, Cd, and Fe, maize was planted in a nearby house garden, situated within 25m distance away from the waste dumpsite and the root, stem, leaf and grains were harvested at maturity. All soil samples collected and the harvested maize parts were analysed for Pb, Cd, and Fe. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Fe in soil were found to range from 3265.8±517.8 to 4351.3±1068.2; 163.96±23.2 to 258.38±123.1; 7712.90±473.8 to 8130.00±808.4 mg/kg respectively. These were significantly higher than values obtained from the reference soil (157.0±39.8, 2.2±1.2, 976.3±353.9 mg/kg respectively) and National Environmental Standard Regulation Agency (NESREA) limits (164mgPb/kg and 50mgCd/kg). Also, soil contamination factor values obtained were greater than 6 and this indicated severe contamination. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Fe in maize-parts were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those cultivated on the reference site soil. Roots had the highest concentration of Pb (40.95±1.98 mg/L) and Cd (2.84±0.19 mg/L). In all maize-parts, bio-accumulation factor of the heavy metals was less than 1. Overall, these results have shown that the levels of metals in soil were several folds above the limits set by NESREA. Also, the range within the analysed plant parts was above the normal limit recommended for plants. High accumulation of heavy metals found in the soils of Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Olodo, Ibadan bio-accumulated in maize-roots. Therefore, maize root is actively involved in phyto extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.
Keywords
Maize, Lead, Cadmium, Iron, Heavy Metals, Contamination Factor, Bio-Accumulation Factor, Ori-Ile Olodo Waste Dumpsite
To cite this article
Adedotun Onoyinka Afolayan, Amusat Titilayo Hassan, Lead, Cadmium and Iron Concentrations in Zea Mays Grown Within the Vicinity of Ori-Ile Battery Waste Dumpsite, Olodo, Ibadan, Nigeria, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 92-103. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20170505.11
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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