Micro-Technological Steps During the Fabrication of an AcHE Biosensor Designated to the Environment Monitoring
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 3, Issue 3-1, June 2015, Pages: 1-6
Received: Feb. 14, 2015;
Accepted: Feb. 14, 2015;
Published: Mar. 12, 2015
Views 3915 Downloads 121
Cristian Ravariu, Dept. of Electronics, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, BioNEC Group, Bucharest, Romania
Elena Manea, Institute of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania
Alina Popescu, Institute of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania
Cecilia Podaru, Institute of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania
Catalin Parvulescu, Institute of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania
Unfortunately, the pesticides pollute a large palette from environment: plants, organisms, soil and water. Using monitoring tools, like chemical biosensors, the use of pesticides can be put under control. Microelectronics offers the convenient transducers. Borrowing micro-technological processes, the enzymatic biosensors can be easily integrated onto the Silicon wafers. This paper proposes a biosensor for paraoxon pesticide detection, as a small piece from a decontamination soil technology plan. The paper reveals the pesticide detection principle, by paraoxon hydrolysis assisted by the Acetyl-cholinesterase enzyme, as key receptor. The enzyme is entrapped on a porous thin layer by adsorption. An advantageous method of the porous intermediate material anchored onto the Si-substrate, converting p-type Si in Si-porous by anodization, is described. Then, some technological steps, with tests and microscopy analysis are presented. Finally, the preliminary tests of the developed biosensor with the AcHE enzyme immobilized onto the Si-porous layer, are discussed.
Micro-Technological Steps During the Fabrication of an AcHE Biosensor Designated to the Environment Monitoring, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Special Issue:Bio-Electronics: Biosensors, Biomedical Signal Processing, and Organic Engineering.
Vol. 3, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 1-6.
Rao GVR, Rupela OP, Rao VR, Reddy YVR. Role of biopesticide in crop protection: present status and future prospects. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 35 (1), 2007, pp. 1–9.
Jurewicz J, Hanke W. "Prenatal and childhood exposure to pesticides and neurobehavioral development: review of epidemiological studies". Int J Occup Med Environ Health 21 (2), 2008, pp 21–32.
Dudman NP, Jersey J, Zerner B. Organophosphate inhibitors. The stereospecificity of hydrolysis of methyl n-butyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate by serum phosphotriesterases (EC 126.96.36.199) and by acetylcholinesterases (EC 188.8.131.52). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977, Mar 15, 481(1), pp. 127-139.
Gader Ghaffari, Farhad Baghbani, The Study of Important Agronomic Traits by Multivariate Analysis in Winter Rapeseed Cultivars, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Science PG, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014, pp. 15-17.
Palmer WE, Bromley PT, and Brandenburg RL. Wildlife & pesticides - Peanuts. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved on 2007, pp. 10-11.
C. Ravariu, A. Popescu, C. Podaru, E. Manea and F. Babarada. The Nanoporous Al2O3 Material Used for the Enzyme Entrapping in a Glucose Biosensor. MEDICON Conference, XII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing Proceedings, Chalkidiki, Greece, vol. 29, May 2010, pp. 459-462.
David A. Areshidze, Lyudmila D. Timchenko, Maria A. Кozlova, Protective Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolyzate of Chlorophytum Comosum (L.) against Experimental Toxic Liver Injury in Wistar Rats at the Age of Two Years, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Science PG, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2013, pp. 49-54.
C. Ravariu, F. Ravariu. Some optimization of Bio-FETs with electrical charged bioliquid, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol.58, No.2, 2006, pp.189-194.
Samson Ayodeji Olofinsae, Bartholomew Okechukwu Ibeh, Habu Josiah Bitrus, Jatinder Ahluwalia, Immunopharmacological Activity of Calcitriol Pre-Treated RAW264.7 Cell Line Stimulated by Phorbol 12-Myristate13-Acetate (PMA) and Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (FMLP) Agonist, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Science PG, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 55-59.
Kavitha CV, Gaonkar SL, Narendra Sharath Chandra JN, Sadashiva CT, Rangappa KS. Synthesis and screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitor activity of some novel 2-butyl-1,3-diaza-spiro[4,4]non-1-en-4-ones: derivatives of irbesartan key intermediate. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 1;15(23), pp. 7391-7398.
C. Ravariu, F. Babarada, E. Manea, C. Parvulescu, I. Rusu, I. Enache, M. Cristea, J. Arhip. Manufacturing of Capacitive Electrodes on Si-substrate for Electrophysiological Applications, 37-th IEEE International Annual Conference of Semiconductors, 13-15 Oct, 2014, Sinaia, Romania, pp. 151-154.
C. Ravariu, E. Manea, C. Parvulescu, F. Babarada, A. Popescu. Titanium dioxide nanotubes on silicon wafer designated for GOX enzymes immobilization, Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. 6, no 2, April - June 2011, pp. 703 - 707.
Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, William C. Hall, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, and Leonard E. White. Neuroscience. 4th ed., Sinauer Associates, 2008, pp. 121–123.
Fee D.C., Gard D.R., Yang C. Phosphorus Compounds. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons: New York, 2005.
S. Kegley, B. Hill, S. Orme. Parathion - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information". Pesticide Action Network, 2010.
K Husain, RA Ansari, L Ferder Pharmacological agents in the prophylaxis/treatment of organophosphorous pesticide intoxication. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2010 July, 48(7), pp. 642-650.
Cristian Ravariu. SOI devices - new challenges for Nano-Electronics, Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Information Technology WCSIT, Invited presentation, Iasi, Romania, IDEO Bussines Center, 3-4 July 2014, pp.11.
A. Bondarciuc, C. Ravariu, V. Bondarciuc, G. Alecu , Non-polluting medical technology for environment and patient used in inflammatory diseases monitoring, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, accepted paper in 2014, in press.
A. Voina, G. Alecu, C. Ravariu, C. Voina, Monitoring system of air quality, 17.55-18.10, 24 July 2014, pp. 63, International Conference - New Trends on Sensing- Monitoring- Telediagnosis for Life Sciences- NT-SMT-LS, organised by Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania, during July 24-26, 2014.
Jong-Hun Park, Duckshin Park, Method of Removing Fe Particulate Matters from Subway Environments, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Science PG, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-6.
Col Islam-ul-Haque, Asim Saleem, Community Based Sewage Treatment through Hybrid Constructed Wetlands System for Improved Heath & Hygiene and for Enhanced Agriculture Productivity / Livelihood Generation in Rural Water Scarce Environments-Pakistan, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Science PG, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 45-54.
Ying Zhuo, Ya-Qin Chai, Ruo Yuan, Li Mao, Ya-Li Yuan, Jing Han, Glucose oxidase and ferrocene labels immobilized at Au/TiO2 nanocomposites, with high load amount and activity for sensitive immunoelectrochemical measurement of ProGRP biomarker, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 2011, pp. 3838–3844.
Jingxia Qiu, Shanqing Zhang, Huijun Zhao, Recent applications of TiO2 nanomaterials in chemical sensing in aqueous media, Sensors and Actuators B 160, 2011, pp. 875– 890.
Pablo R. Dalmasso, María L. Pedano, Gustavo A. Rivas, Supramolecular architecture based on the self-assembling of multiwall carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyhistidine and glucose oxidase: Characterization and analytical applications for glucose biosensing, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 39, 2013, pp. 76–81.
Saakshi Dhanekar, Swati Jain, Porous silicon biosensor: Current status, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 41, March, 2013, pp. 55-64.
Tiffany M. Hoover, Development of macroporous silicon for bio-chemical sensing applications, 23rd Annual Microelectronic Engineering Conference, May 2005, pp. 78-86.