Assessment of Microbiological Proliferation and in Vitro Demonstration of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Commonly Available Salad Vegetables within Dhaka Metropolis, Bangladesh
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 55-60
Received: Mar. 23, 2014;
Accepted: Apr. 14, 2014;
Published: Apr. 30, 2014
Views 3571 Downloads 223
Tasnia Ahmed, Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Nusrat Jahan Urmi, Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Sakil Munna, Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Kamal Kanta Das, Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mrityunjoy Acharjee, Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M Majibur Rahman, Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Rashed Noor, Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Present study mapped a complete pathogenic profile of the salad vegetables in Dhaka Metropolis, Bangladesh. In addition to a huge bacterial load found previously in lettuce, tomato, cucumber and carrot, current study further detected microbial contamination in chili, onion, capsicum and coriander samples. While Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. fecal coliform and Eshcherichia coli were found to be absent within these vegetable samples; a colossal burden of Aeromonas spp. (>106 cfu/g) was observed in chili, capsicum, coriander, whereas Staphylococcus aureus (1.2×108 cfu/g) and Klebsiella Pneumoniae (104 cfu/g) were detected in onion. Fungal growth was also observed in all samples. Most of the pathogens from all 8 samples were resistant against erythromycin (15 µg), amoxicillin (30 µg) and ampicillin (10 µg) while susceptible against ciprofloxacin (5 µg), kanamycin (30 µg) and gentamicin (10 µg). Interestingly, lettuce and cucumber samples were found to exhibit the anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas spp.
Nusrat Jahan Urmi,
Md. Sakil Munna,
Kamal Kanta Das,
M Majibur Rahman,
Assessment of Microbiological Proliferation and in Vitro Demonstration of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Commonly Available Salad Vegetables within Dhaka Metropolis, Bangladesh, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 55-60.
L.R. Beuchat, “Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables.” Micro. Infect., vol. 4(4), pp. 413-423, 2002.
E.A. Szabo, and M.J. Conventry, Spoilage of processed foods; causes and diagnosis. Waterloo: AIFST Inc. (NSW Branch) Food Microbiology Group, 2001.
J.A. Bartz, and C.I. Wei, The influence of bacteria postharvest physiology and pathology of vegetables. 2nd ed., New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003, pp. 519-541.
N.P. Aelice, “Manure and Microbes: Public and Animal Health Problem?” J. Dairy Sci., vol. 80 (10), pp. 2673-2681, 1997.
D.R. Bhatta, A. Bangtrakulonth, P. Tishyadhigama, S.D. Saroj, J.R. Bandekar, R.S. Hendriksen, and B.P. Kapadnis, “Serotyping, PCR, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of Nepal.” Let. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 44(6), pp. 588-594, 2007.
A.J. Gubala, and D.F. Proll, “Molecula-Beacon Multiplex Real-Time PCR assay for detection of Vibrio cholerae.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 72(9), pp. 6424-6428, 2006.
J.E. Jakee, E.I. Moussa, K.F. Mohamed, and G. Mohamed, “Using molecular techniques for characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from water sources in Egypt.” Global Veterinaria, vol. 3(5), pp. 354-362, 2009.
W.C.J. Cray, and W.H. Moon, “Experimental infection of calves and adult cattle with Escherichia coli O157:H7.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 61(4), pp. 1586-1590, 1995.
J.A. Snowdon, D.O. Cliver, and J.C. Converse, “Land disposal of mixed human and animal wastes: A review.” Waste Manag. Res., vol. 7, pp. 21-134, 1989.
D. Starutch, “Survival of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in excreta, manure sand ewage sludge.” Rev. Sci. Tech., vol. 10(3), pp. 813-846, 1991.
F.C. Tenover, “Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria.” American. J. Med., vol. 119(6A), pp. S3-S10, 2006.
H. Belguith, F. Kthiri, A. Chati, A.A. Sofah, J.B. Hamida, and A. Ladoulsi, “Inhibitory effect of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on some isolated Salmonella serovars.” African J. Microbiol. Res., vol. 4(5): pp. 328-338, 2010.
A. Dubey, N. Mishra, and N. Singh, “Antimicrobial activity of some selected vegetables.” Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharma. Tech., vol. 1(3), pp. 994-999, 2010.
V. Oni, A. Oni, and F. Esumeh, “Prevalence of Bacteria food poison from vegetable salads.” Internet. J. Nutr. Well., vol. 10(1), 2010.
F. Rahman, and R. Noor, “Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in common salad vegetables of Dhaka metropilis.” Bang. J. Bot., vol. 41(2), pp. 159-162, 2012.
American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., Washington DC: American Public Health Association, 1998.
J.G. Cappuccino, and N. Sherman, Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 4th ed., Menlo Park, California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co Inc, 1996, pp. 13-182.
R.R. Colwell, “Non-culturable microorganisms in the environment. Washington DC, USA: American Society of Microbiology, 2000, pp. 325-342.
J.D. Oliver, “The viable but nonculturable state in bacteria.” J. Microbiol., vol. 43, pp. 93-100, 2005.
C. Polcovnicu, L. Ionescu, and G. Bahrim, “Confirmation and identification of Listeria species from fresh lettuce.” Romanian Biotechnol. Let., vol. 13(6), pp. 32-36, 2008.
E.B. Alfrad, Bensons Microbiological Applications. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 2007, pp 263-280.
A.W. Bauer, W.M.M. Kirby, J.C. Sherris, and M. Tierch, “Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method.” American J. Clin. Patho., vol. 45(4), pp. 493-496, 1966.
M.J. Ferraro, W.A. Craig, and M.N. Dudley, Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 11th ed. Pennsylvania, USA: NCCLS, 2001.
S.K. Munshi, M.M. Rahman, and R. Noor, “Detection of virulence potential of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from surface water rivers surrounding Dhaka city.” J. Bang. Acad. Sci., vol. 36(1), pp. 109-122, 2012.
M. Acharjee, K. Fatema, F. Jahan, S.J. Siddiki, M.A. Uddin, and R. Noor, “Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in different food samples in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh.” Int. Food Res. J., vol. 20(2). 2013.
S. Dutta, M.R. Hasan, F. Rahman, M.S.A. Jilani, and R. Noor, “Study of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically significant microorganisms isolated from selected areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.” Bang. J. Med. Sci., vol. 12 (1), pp. 34-42, 2003.
S.A. Khan, F. Feroz, and R. Noor, “Study of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria from urinary tract infection in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.” Tzu. Chi. Med. J., unpublished.
R. Noor, M.A. Uddin, M.A. Hoq, S.K. Munshi, M. Acharjee, and M.M. Rahman, “Microbiological study of vendor and packed fresh juices locally available in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.” Int. Food Res. J., vol. 20(2), 2013.
R.C. Jagessar, A. Mars, and G. Gones, “Selective antimicrobial properties of leaf extract against various micro-organisms using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion method.” J. Nat. Sci., vol. 6(2), pp. 24-38, 2008.
A. Hussain, S. Wahab, I. Zarin, and M.D.S. Hussain, “Antibacterial activity of the leaves of Coccinia indica (W. and A) W of India.” Adv. Biol. Res., vol. 4(5), pp. 241-248, 2010.
A.A. Butt, K.E. Aldrig, and C.V. Sanders, “Infections related to the ingestion of seafood Part I: Viral and bacterial infections.” Lancet. Infect. Dis., vol. 4: pp. 201-212, 2004.
P.M. Bennet, “Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: Acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.” British J. Pharmacol., vol. 153(1), pp. 347-357, 2008.
R. Canton, “Antibiotic resitance genes from the environment: A perspective through newly identified antibiotic resistance mechanisms in clinical setting.” Euro. Soc. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., vol. 15(1), pp. 20-25, 2009.
D.T. Hung, and B.B. Kaufman, “The Fast Track to Multidrug Resistance.” Mol. Cell Biol., vol. 37(3), pp. 297-298, 2010.
K.H. Kyung, and H.P. Fleming, “Antibacterial activity of cabbage juice against lactic acid bacteria.” J. Food. Sci., vol. 59(1), pp. 125-129, 1994.
F. Feroz, J.D. Senjuti, and R. Noor, “Determination of microbial growth and survival in salad vegetables through in vitro challenge test.” International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, vol. 2(6), pp. 312-319, 2013.
N. Sarker, S. Islam, M. Hasan, F. Kabir, M.A. Uddin, and R. Noor. “Use of multiplex PCR assay for detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in street vended food items.” American Journal of Life Sciences, vol. 1(6), pp. 267-272, 2013.
N. Fatema, M. Acharjee, and R. Noor, “Microbiological profiling of imported apples and demonstration of bacterial survival capacity through in vitro challenge test.” American Journal of Microbiological Research, vol. 1(4), pp. 98-104, 2013.
T. Ahmed, M. Acharjee, M.S. Rahman, M. Meghla, J. Jamal, S.K. Munshi, and R. Noor. “Microbiological study of drinking water: qualitative and quantitative approach.” Asian J. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sc. vol. 15(4), pp. 23-30, 2013.