Women Economic Empowerment Through Non Timber Forest Products in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 99-104
Received: Mar. 21, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 10, 2015;
Published: May 9, 2015
Views 5462 Downloads 239
Getahun Kassa, Department of Agricultural Economics, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
Eskinder Yigezu, Department of Agricultural Economics, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
In many communities there are limited income-generating opportunities for women. Fortunately, NTFP activities are one of the few cash-generating opportunities for women in marginalized rural communities. Nevertheless, increasing pressure on forests and biodiversity has increased the pressure on rural women. We investigated the factors influencing the income that women drive from NTFPs collection. In addition, our research also investigated the contribution of NTFPs income for the total annual income of the women and for reducing income inequality in Gimbo District. Two kebeles were selected based on NTFPs availability, level of forest exploitation activities of the people and nearness to road. Data were collected from 120 selected women through structured interviews, focus group discussions, market assessments as well as field observation. Though NTFPs accounted for 53.76% of the annual income for women, its contribution is affected by different factors. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify factors that affect the income from NTFPs. Out of eight variables included in the regression, four variables such as non NTFPs (other) income, time spent in NTFPs collection, proximity to the forest and distance to market significantly affected the income women derive from NTFP activities. The contribution of NTFPs income in reducing income inequality was analyzed by using Gini Coefficient. Comparing the Gini index with and without NTFPs production (income), the income disparity lowered from 0.40 to 0.27 in the inclusion of NTFPs. Therefore, empowering women through NTFP activities can create significant opportunity for women in terms of income and in reducing income inequality. Thus, policy programs should due attention in improving alternative sources of income for women in the study area.
Women Economic Empowerment Through Non Timber Forest Products in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 99-104.
Carr M, (2008). Gender and non-timber forest products: Promoting food security and economic empowerment. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Italy.
Hill C, (2011). Enabling Rural Women’s Economic Empowerment: Institutions, Opportunities, and Participation.
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), 1994. Program of Action
OECD, (2012). Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: The Role of Empowerment. The OECD DAC Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET)
Esplen E, and Brody A, (2007). Putting Gender Back in the Picture: Rethinking Women’s Economic Empowerment. Report prepared at the request of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); Bibliography No. 19
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 2014. The Gender Advantage. Women on the Front of Climate Change.
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), (2008). Gender and non-timber forest products. Promoting food security and economic empowerment.
Budlender, D, ( 2010). ‘What Do Time Use Studies Tell us about Unpaid Care Work? Evidence from Seven Countries’, in Time Use Studies and Unpaid Care Work, ed. Budlender, UNRISD; Hoenig S. A. and Page, A.R.E, 2012, Counting on Care Work in Australia, Report prepared by AECgroup Limited for economic Security4women, Australia; Charmes, J. and J. Unni (2004), “Measurement of work”, in G. Standing and M. Chen eds., Reconceptualising Work, International Labour Organization.
Mersha G, (2007). Gender Mainstreaming In Forestry in Africa; Ethiopia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 2007
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 2010. Gender and Desertification. Expanding roles for women to restore dry land areas enabling.
Wong J, (2000). The biometrics of non-timber forest product resource assessment: A review of current methodology.
Adepoju, Adebusola A, Salau, Sheu A, (2007). Economic Valuation of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs), Univerisity of Ibbadan, Ibbadan.
Food and Agricultural organization (FAO), (1990). Major Significance of Minor Forest Product: The Local Use and Value of Forest in the West African Humid Forest Zone. Community Forestry Note 6 Rome.
Schreckenberg K, and Marshall E, (2006). Women and NTFPs: Improving income and status? In: Marshall E, Schreckenberg K, and Newton A.C, (eds.) Commercialization of non timberforest products: Factors influencing success. UNEPWCMC, Cambridge. 136p
World Wildlife Fund UK (WWF-UK), (2012). Forest Management and Gender.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), (2014). Women in Forestry: Challenges and Opportunities
FAO, (2013). Forests, food security and gender: linkages, disparities and priorities for action. Background paper for the International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition, FAO, Rome, 13–15 May, 2013
Mohammed A, Tadesse W, and Abebe Y, (2006). Counting on Forests: Non-Timber Forest Products and Their Role in the Households and National Economy in Ethiopia. Published in Agricultural Economics Society of Ethiopia (AESE): Commercialization of Ethiopian Agriculture, Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of Agricultural Economics Society of Ethiopia, February 24-26, 2005, Addis Ababa.
Matheos E, (2001). Inventory of woody species in Bonga Forest. Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research. Technical Report No. 1. Addis Abeba.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1989). Using Multivariate Statistics. 2nd edition. Cambridge, MA: Harper & Row.
Gujarati D, (2004). Basic Econometrics. Fourth edition. New York. The McGraw−Hill Companies.
Wooldridge J, (2005). Introductory Econometrics. A modern Approach. Third Edition. Thomson South Western.
Mulenga B, Richardson R, and Tembo G, (2012). Non-Timber Forest Products and Rural Poverty Alleviation in Zambia, Working Paper No. 62, April 2012
Getachew M, Sjaastad E, and Velded P, (2007). Economic dependence of forest resource: case from Dendi District, Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics 9:916-927.
Ermias M, Zeleke E, and Demel T, (2014). Non-timber forest products and household incomes in Bonga forest area, southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research (2014) 25(1): 215−223
Raufu M, Akinniran T, Olawuyi S, and Akinpelu M, (2012). Economic Analysis Of Rural Women Income From Non-Timber Forest Products In Ife South Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Agriculture & Biology; Volume 12 Issue 1 Version 1.0 January 2012
Yemiru T, Roos A, Campbell B, and Bohlin F, (2010). Forest Incomes and Poverty Alleviation under Participatory Forest Management in the Bale Highlands, Southern Ethiopia. International Forestry Review 12(1):66-77.
Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI), (2014). Ethiopia Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2014.
Asmamaw A, Pretzsch J, Secco L, and Mohamod T, (2014). Contribution of Small-Scale Gum and Resin Commercialization to Local Livelihood and Rural Economic Development in the Dry lands of Eastern Africa. Forests 2014, 5, 952-977
Ouedraogo B, and Ferrari S, (2012). Incidence of forest income in reducing poverty and inequalities: Evidence from forest dependent households in managed forests’ areas in Burkina Faso. Cahiers du GREThA, n°2012-28.
Khanal B, (2013). Determinants of Farmers' Income from Community Forestry in Nawalparasi, Nepal. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol: 14, Jun.2013
Onoja A, and Unaeze H, (2009). Forest Income Determinants among Rural Households of Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 11, No.3, 2009)
Rodríguez F, (2007). Socio- economic Determinants of Non-Timber Forest Products Collection. A case study among indigenous people in Karnataka, India
Quang D, and Anh T, (2006). Commercial collection of NTFPs and Households living in or near the forests; case study in Que, Con Coung and Ma, Toung Doung, Ghe An, Vietnham. Ecological Economics 60 (2006): 65-74