Technical Efficiency of Diversification Versus Specialization of Vegetable-Based Farms in the West Region of Cameroon
This study evaluated the efficiency of diversification versus specialization of vegetable-based farms in the West region of Cameroon. The study employed the use of a questionnaire to obtain information from 70 specialized and 54 diversified farmers randomly selected from three purposively selected localities in the West region. The one-step stochastic frontier approach with a Cobb-Douglas model specification was used in analysis. Data was analyzed using the computer program, STATA version 12.0. Findings revealed that majority (71.8%) of vegetable farmers are males, with an average age of 30 years and 73.4% had attained at least a primary education. Results of the stochastic frontier analysis revealed the mean technical efficiency of vegetable farmers to be 0.863. Mean technical efficiency scores for specialized and diversified farmers were found to be 0.867 and 0.858 respectively. However, the results of a standard t-test concluded that technical efficiency is invariant of cropping system. The main sources of inefficiency were identified to be farm size, education, credit and membership to a mutual aid group, while age, sex and access to extension information and services were found to enhance technical efficiency. The study therefore recommends extension services to be reinforced on farmers who receive loan and on those who belong to mutual aid groups, in a bid to increase technical efficiency.
Teh Nguh Julie,
Fon Dorothy Engwali,
Technical Efficiency of Diversification Versus Specialization of Vegetable-Based Farms in the West Region of Cameroon, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2017, pp. 112-120.
Ogunniyi, L. T., and Oladejo, J. A. (2011). Technical Efficiency of Tomato Production in Oyo State, Nigeria. Agricultural Science research Journal; Vol 1; No 8, 84-91.
FAO (2011) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations, Rome, Italy, 2007. http://www.fao.org. Retrieved from the internet on 16/04/2015
Gockowski, J., and Ndoumbe, M. (2004). The Adoption of Intensive Mono-crop Horticulture in Southern Cameroon. Agricultural Economics; Vol 30, 195-202.
Countrystat (2015) http://www.countrystat-cameroon.org. Retrieved from the internet on 16/04/2015
Temgoua, E., Ntangmo, T. N., Njine, T., and Serve, M.-A. (2012). Vegetable Production Systems of Swamp Zone in Urban Environment in West Cameroon: Case of Dschang City. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and technology; Vol 2; issue 2, 83-92.
Berinyuy, J. E., and Fontem, D. A. (2011). Evaluating post harvest opportunities and constraints to utilization and marketing of African leafy vegetables in Cameroon. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol. 11, No.2, 4647-4663.
Ijang, P. T., Ngome, F., Ntsefong, N., and Wirngo, J. N. (2013). Consultancy Report on Vegetable Seeds: Baseline Survey for Setting up Smallholders Sustainable Vegetable Seed Supply and Distribution System in HUmid Tropics Areas of Cameroon. Intergrated Agricultural Systems for the Humidtropics; a CGIAR Research Project; AVRDC Cameroon.
Aminu, F. O., Ayinde, I. A., and Ambali, O. (2013). Effect of Ill Health on Technical Efficiency of dry season Vegetable Farmers in Oyo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research; Vol 1; No 6, 108-113.
Amoah, S. T., Akobour, I. D., and Abubakari, R. (2014). Technical Efficiency of Vegetable Farmers in Peri-Urban Ghana: Influence and Effects of Resource Inequalities. America Journal of Agriculture and Forestry; Vol2; No 3, 79-87.
Etim, N.-A. A., and Udoh, E. J. (2014). Identifying Sources of Efficiency among Resource Poor Indigenous Vegetable Farmers in Uyo, Nigeria. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics; Vol 2; No 1, 33-39.
Coelli, T., and Fleming, E. (2003). Diversification Economies and Specialisation Efficiencies in a Mixed Food and Coffee Smallholder farming Systems in Papua New Guinea. 25th International Conference of Agricultural Economists; 16-22 August. Durban; South Africa: Event Dynamics.
Ogundari, K. (2013). Crop Diversification and Technical Efficiency in Food Crop Production: A Study of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria. International Journal of Social Economics; Vol 40; No 3, 84-91.
Mesfin, W., Fufa, B., and Haji, J. (2011). Pattern, Trend and Determinants of Crop Diversification: Empirical Evidence from Smallholders in Eastern Ethiopia. Iournal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 78-90.
Nzie, J. R., and Nonga, F. N. (2012). Is Diversification an Efficient or Safe Strategy? The Case of Perishable Food Crop Production Systems in Cameroon. International Journal of Business and Management; Vol 17; No 14, 124-134.
Singbo, A. G., Emvalomatis, G., and Lansink, A. O. (2013, August 4-6). Assessing the Impact of Crop Specialisation on Farms Performance in Vegetable Farming in Benin: A Non-Neutral Stochastic Frontier Approach. Selected paper for presentation on the Agricultuiral and Applied Economics Association 2013 AAEA and CAES Joint Annual meeting. Washington.
Mkhabela, T. (2005). Technical Efficiency in a Vegetable Based Mixed-Cropping Sector in Tugela Ferry, Msinga District, Kwazulu-Natal, Agrekon; Vol 44; No 2. 187.
Anandalingram, G., and Kulatikala, N. (1987). Decomposing Production Efficiency into Technical, Allocative and Structural Components. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society; Series A (General); Vol 150; Issue 2, 143-157.
Binam, J. N., Tonye, J., and Wandji, N. (2005). Sources of Technical Efficiency among Smallholder Maize and Peanut Farmers in the Slash and Burn Agriculture Zone in Cameroon. Journal of Economic Cooperation; Vol 26; No1, 193-210.
Haider, M. Z., Ahmed, M. S., and Malick, A. (2011). Technical Efficiency of Agricultural Farms in Kulna, Bangladesh: Stochastic Frontier Approach. International Journal of Economics and Finance; Vol 3; No 3, 248-256.
Nchare, A. (2007). Analysis of Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency of arabica Coffee Producers in Cameroon. AERC Research Paper 163. Nairobi, Kenya: African Economic research Consortium.
Ogundari, K. (2009). A Meta-Analysis of Technical efficiency in Nigerian Agriculture. Contributed paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference. Beijing, China.
Thiam, A., Bravo-Ureta, B. E., and Rivas, T. E. (2001). Technical Efficiency in Developing Country Agriculture: A Meta-Analysis. Agricultural Economics; Vol 25, 235-243.
Bozoglu, M., and Ceyhan, V. (2007). Measuring the Technical Efficiency and Exploring the Inefficiency Determinants of Vegetable Farms in Samsun Province, Turkey. Agricultural Systems; No 94, 649-659.
Tsobo, B. A., Omotesho, O. A., Salau, S. A., and Adewumi, M. O. (2012). Determinants of Technical, Allocative and Economic Efficiency among Dry Season Vegetable Farmers in Sokoto State, Nigeria. J. Agri. Sci.; Vol 3; No 2, 113-119.
Okolle, J. N., Ijiang, P. T., and Ngome, F. A. (2014). Evaluation of farmers's knowledge on pests and diseases of vegetables and their management practices in three different agroecological zones in Cameroon.Cameroon: AVRDC.
Neba, A. (1999). Modern Geography of Cameroon; 3rd ed.Bamenda: Neba Publishers.
Alam, A., Kobayashi, H., Matsuda, T., Ishida, A., Matsumura, I., and Esham, M. (2012). Stochastic Frontier Approach to Measure Technical Efficiency of two Irrigation Systems in Gigit District, Gilgit-Baltisan Region, Pakistan. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment; Vol10; No 1, 543-550.
Nguyen, H. (2014). Crop Diversification, Economic Performance and Household's Behaviuor: Evidence from Vietnam. MPRA Paper No 59168.
Mastromarco, C. (2008). Stochastic Frontier Models.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Taylor, T. G., and Shonkwiler, J. S. (1986). Alternative Stochastic Specifications of the Frontier Production Function in the Analysis of Agricultural Credit programs and Technical Efficiency. Journal of Development Economics; Vol 21, 149-160.
Ahmad, M., and Bravo-Ureta, B. (1996). Technical Efficiency Measurement for Diary Farms Using Panel Data: A Comparison of Alternative Model Specifications. J. Prod. Anal; Vol 7, 399-416.
Kopp, R. J., and Smith, V. K. (1980). Frontier Production Function Estimates for Steam Electric Generation: A Comparative Analysis. Southern Econometrics Journal; Vol 47, 1049-1059.
Battese, G. E. (1992). Frontier Production Functions and Technical Efficiency: A Survey of Empirical Applications in Agricultural Economics. Agricultural Economics; Vol 7, 185-208.
Asefa, S. (2011). Analysis of Technical efficiency of Crop Producing Smallholder Farmers in Tigray, Ethiopia. MPRA paper; No 40461.
Aigner, D. J., Lovell, A. K., and Schmidt, P. (1977). Formation and Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Function Models. Journal of Econometrics; Vol 6, 21-37.
Bravo-Ureta, B. E., and Pinheiro, A. E. (1997). Technical, Economic and allocative Efficieciency: Evidence from the Dominican Republic. The Developing Economics; XXXV-I, 48-67.
Battese, G. E., and Coelli, T. (1995). A Model of Technical Inefficiency Effects on Stochastic Frontier Production for Panel Data. Empirical Economics; Vol 20, 325-345.
Ajewole, O. C., and Folayan, A, J. (2008). Stochastic Frontier Analysis of the Technical Efficiency of Dry Season Leaf Vegetable Production among Smallholders in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Agricultural Journal; Vol 3; No 4, 252-257.
Haji, J. (2006). Production Efficiency of Smallholders' Vegetable-Dominated Mixed Farming System in Eastern Ethiopia: A Non-Parametric Approach. Joiurnal of African Economics; Vol16; No 1, 1-27.
Malinga, N. G., Masuku, M. B., and Raufu, M. O. (2015). Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farms with or Without Credit Access in Sawaziland and the Cae of the Hhohho Region. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research; Vol 2; No 4, 133-145.
Nyagaka, D. O., Obare, G. A., Omiti, J. M., and W, N. (2010). Technical Efficiency in resource Use: Evidence from Smallholder Irish Potato Farmers in Nyandarua North District, Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research; Vol 5; No 11, 1179-1186.
Saldias, R., and von Cramon-Taubadel, S. (2012). Access to credit and the determinants of technical Inefficiency Among Small Farmers in Chile.Gottingen: Universitat Gottingen.
Kane, G. Q., Fondo, S., and Oyekale, S. A. (2012). Efficiency of Groundnut/Maize Intercropped farms in Zoetele, South Cameroon: A Data Envelopment Approach. Life Science Journal; Vol. 9; No. 4, 3955-3962.
Abatania, L. N., Hailu, A., and Mugera, A. W. (2012, February 7-10). Analysis of Farm Household Technical Efficiency in Northern Ghana using Bootstrap DEA. Paper presented at the 56th annual conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society. Fremantle, WA.
Njeru, J. (2010). Factors influencing technical efficiencies among selected wheat farmers in Uasin Gishu District, Kenya. AERC Research paper 206. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium.