Influence of Continuous Gamma Irradiation on Morpho-agronomic Characteristics of Amaranthus caudatus in M1 and M2 Generations
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 130-136
Received: May 28, 2017; Accepted: Jun. 14, 2017; Published: Jul. 24, 2017
Views 1728      Downloads 65
Veer Singh Rawat, District Institute for Education and Training (DIET), New Tehri, India
Shyam Shanker Singh, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, India
Mohd Rafi Wani, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, India
Ankita Singh, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Amaranthus caudatus play an important role against hunger and malnutrition that occur due to low rain fall conditions, gaining a wide attention in food and medicinal industry. Being a versatile plant in terms of its nutritional value the improvement of this plant with reference to germination, growth and yield is still uncharacterized. Therefore the present investigation is carried out to determine the influence of gamma radiation in modifying germination, growth and yield attributes of Amaranthus caudatus. The air dried seeds were exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (10KR, 20KRC, 40KRC and 80KRC) using 60Co source, sowing was carried out in a complete randomized block design, and the observations were taken upto M2 generation. The results showed that the influence of different doses of gamma irradiation on germination parameters was significant in M1 and M2 generations. The influence on the survival percentage was obtained in both M1 and M2 generation, and highest percentage of survival was recorded under 20KRC in both M1 and M2 generations. The average yield per plant in M1 and M2 generations were observed higher under 20KRC dose level of gamma irradiations. The gamma irradiation treatment showed significant enhancement in different growth parameters in both M1 and M2 generations. Also, it was observed that the growth and yield in M2 generation across all doses was better than M1 generation.
Amaranthus caudatus, Gamma Irradiations, Growth, Yield, M1 and M2 Generation, Morpho-agronomic Characteristics
To cite this article
Veer Singh Rawat, Shyam Shanker Singh, Mohd Rafi Wani, Ankita Singh, Influence of Continuous Gamma Irradiation on Morpho-agronomic Characteristics of Amaranthus caudatus in M1 and M2 Generations, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 130-136. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20170504.17
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Saunders RM and Becker R. 1984. Amaranthus: A potential food and feed resource. Page 357 in: Advances in Cereal Science Technology, Vol 5. Y. Pomeranz, ed. Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem.: St. Paul, MN.
Garuda AM. 2004. Amaranth grain, garuda international. Retrieved from Garuda
Fan J, Shi M, Huang JZ, Xu J, Wang ZD and Guo DP. 2014. Regulation of photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity by 60Co γ-irradiation in Zizania latifolia plants. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 129: 33-42.
Esnault MA, Legue F and Chenal C. 2010. Ionizing radiation: advances in plant response. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68: 231-237.
Shabana EF, Gabr MA, Moussa HR, El-Shaer EA and Ismaiel MMS. 2016. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation. Food Chemistry, 214: 550–555.
Kovacs E and Keresztes A. 2002. Effect of gamma and UV-B/C radiation on plant cell. Micron, 33: 199-210.
Sparrow AH, Sparrow RC, Thompson KH and Schairer LA. 1965. The use of nuclear and chromosomal variables in determining and predicting radiosensitivities. Radiation Botany (Suppl.) 5, 101-132.
Sparrow AH and Woodwell GM. 1962. Pre- diction of the sensitivity of plants to chronic gamma irradiation. Radiation Botany, 2: 9- 26.
Kim JH, Baek MH, Chung BY, Wi SG and Kim JS. 2004. Alterations in the photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant machineries of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seedlings from gamma irradiated seeds. Journal of Plant Biology, 47: 314-321.
Wi SG, Chung BY, Kim JH, Baek MH, Yang DH, Lee JW and Kim JS. 2005. Ultrastructural changes of cell organelles in Arabidopsis stem after gamma irradiation. J. Plant Biol, 48 (2): 195-200.
Jia CF, Li AL. (2008). Effect of gamma radiation on mutant induction of Fagopyrum dibotrys Hara. Photosynthetica, 46: 363-369.
Kim SH, Song M, Lee KJ, Hwang SG, Jang CS, Kim JB, Kim, SH, Ha BK, Kang SY and Kim DS. (2012). Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of ROS scavenging and signal transduction pathways in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in response to different types of ionizing radiation. Molecular Biology Reports, 39: 11231–11248.
Pereira Eliana, Barros Lillian, Barreira J. C. M., Carvalho Ana Maria, Antonio Amilcar L. and Ferreira ICFR. 2016. Electron beam and gamma irradiation as feasible conservation technologies for wild Arenaria montana L.: Effects on chemical and antioxidant parameters. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 36: 269–276.
Marcu D, Cristea V and Darban L. 2013. Dose-dependent effects of gamma radiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) seedlings. Int J Radiat Biol 89: 219–223.
Majeed A and Muhammad Z. 2010. Gamma irradiation effects on some growth parameters of Lepidium sativum L. World J Fungal Plant Biol 1 (1): 8–11.
Singh SS and Sujata. 2004. Effect of gamma rays on seed germination and seedling growth of Robinia pseudoacacia. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 6 (1): 33-38.
Singh SS and Vandana. 2008. Sensitivity of Albizia julibrissin Durazz Seeds to Gamma Rays. In proceeding of the FORTROP II: Tropical Forestry Change in a Changing World, 17-20 November 2008, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, 25-39.
Mackay WA, Davis TD and Sankhla D. 1995. Influence of scarification and temperature treatments on seed germination of Lupinus havardii. Seed Science & Technology, 23: 815-821.
Czabator FJ. 1962. Germination value: an index combining speed and completeness of Pine seed germination. Forest Science, 8: 386-396.
Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1–42.
Jan Sumira, Parween Talat, Siddiqi TO and Mahmooduzzafar. 2012. Effect of gamma radiation on morphological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of plants and plant products. Environment Reviews, 20: 17–39.
Sato Y, Shirasawa K, Takahashi Y, Nishimura M, Nishio T (2006) Mutant selection from progeny of gamma-ray-irradiated rice by DNA heteroduplex cleavage using Brassica petiole extract. Breed Sci 56: 179–183.
Eroglu Y, Eroglu HE and Ilbas AI. 2007. Gamma ray reduces mitotic index in embryonic roots of Hordeum vulgare L. Adv Biol Res 1 (1-2): 26–28.
Sansenya Sompong, Hua Yanling, Chumanee Saowapa, Phasa Kannika and Sricheewin Chanun. 2017. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline Content, GABA Content and Volatile Compounds of Germinated Rice (Thai Upland Rice). Plants, 6 (18): 3-12.
Shakoor A, Haq MA and Sadiq M. 1978. Induced Genetic Variability in M2 and Evaluation of Promising Mutant Lines in M4 Generation of Mung Bean,” Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (1-2): 1- 6.
Khan Wisal Muhammad, Shah Syed Zahir, Khan Muhammad Saleem, Zia Ul Islam, Ali Sajjad, Hussain Fida, Irshad Muhammad and Muhammad Zahid. (2014). Effects of gamma radiations on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of Brassica napus L. (variety Altex). International Journal of Biosciences. 4 (10): 36-41.
Mudibu J, Nkongolo KK, Kalonji-Mbuyi A and Kizungu R. 2010. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Morpho-Agronomic Characteristics of Soybeans (Glycine max L.),” American Journal of Plant Science 3 (3): 331-337.
Rao S K. 1988. Gamma Ray Induced Morphological and Physiological Variations in Cicer arietinum L.,” Indian Journal of Botany, 11 (1): 29-32.
Khan MR, Qureshi AS, Hussain SA and Ibrahim M. 2005. Genetic Variability Induced by gamma irradiation and Its Modulation with Gibberellic Acid in M2 Generation of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.),” Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37 (2): 285-292.
Pitirmovae MA (1979) Effect of gamma rays and mutagens on barley seeds. Physiological Research 6: 127-131.
Yadav V. 2016. Effect of gamma radiation on various growth parameters and biomass of Canscora decurrens Dalz. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 4 (5): 109-115.
Singh S S and Wani Mohd Rafi. 2017. Sensitivity and potential of Terminalia tomentosa Roxb towards different gamma irradiation exposure regimes at early growth phases. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 6 (1): 2409 -2418.
Minisi FA, El-mahrouk ME, Rida MEF and Nasr MN. 2013. Effects of gamma radiation on germination, growth characteristics and morphological variations of Moluccella laevis L. Am-Euras. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 13 (5): 696-704.
Gay F, Maraval I, Roque S, Gunata Z, Boulanger R, Audebert A and Mestres C. 2010. Effect of salinity on yield and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content in the grains of three fragrant rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in Camargue (France). Field Crops Res. 117: 154–160.
Gustafsson A, Hagberg A, Persson G and Wikland K. 1971. Induced mutation and barley improvement. Theoretical Appl. Gene. 41: 239-48.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186