Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology. Formally derived from the grapheme sheet they exhibit unusual mechanical properties such as high toughness and high elastic moduli. Referring to their electronic structure, they exhibit semiconducting as well as metallic behavior and thus cover the full range of properties important for technology. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes and multiple walled nanotubes. Techniques have been developed to produce Nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition, silane solution method and flame synthesis method. The properties and characteristics of CNTs are still being researched heavily and scientists have barely begun to tap the potential of these structures. Without doubt, carbon nanotubes represent a material that offers great potential, bringing with it the possibility of breakthroughs in a new generation of devices, electric equipment and bio fields. The main objective of this review article deals with the study of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the growth mechanism of plants. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can affect plant phenotype and the composition of soil micro biota. Tomato plants grown in soil supplemented with CNTs produce two times more flowers and fruit compared to plants grown in control soil.
Ashok Kumar Jha,
A Review on: Carbon Nanotubes Are Vital for Plant Growth, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Special Issue:Pest Science.
Vol. 5, No. 5-1,
2017, pp. 1-9.
Mukul Kumar and Yoshinori Ando Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes: A Review on Growth Mechanism and Mass Production Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Vol. 10, 3739– 3758, 2010.
S. Iijima, Nature (London) 354 56, 1991.
N. Valentin, Popov, Mat Sci and Engg R 43, 61, 2004.
H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl & R. E. Smalley, C60: Buckminsterfullerene, Nature 318, 162 - 163 14, November 1985.
Rajashree Hirlekar, Manohar Yamgar, Harshal Garse, Mohit Vij and Vilasrao Kadam “Carbon nanotubes and its applications: A Review” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2009, 2 (4), 17-27.
E. N. Ganesh. Single Walled and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube Structure, Synthesis and Applications. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075,Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2013.
Kalpna Varshney., Carbon Nanotubes: A. Review on Synthesis, Properties and Applications. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 4, June-July, 2014.
Qiang Shi, Zhongyuan Yu,, Yumin Liu, Hui Gong, Haozhi Yin, Wen Zhang, Jiantao Liu, Yiwei Peng. Plasmonics properties of nano-torus: An FEM method. Optics Communications, Volume 285, Issues 21–22, Pages 4542–4548, 1 October 2012.
Xiaojun Wu and Xiao Cheng Zeng Periodic Graphene Nanobuds. Nano Lett., December 11, 2008.
Harris P. J. F, Tsang S. C, Claridge J. B. and Green M. L. H. High resolution electron microscopy studied of a microporous carbon produced by arc evaporation J. Chem.Soc. Faraday. Trans.90, 2799–802, 1994.
http://www.ee.nec.de/News/Releases/pr283-01.html (August, 2001).
Shuyun Zhu and Guobao Xu. Single-walled carbon nanohorns and their applications. Nanoscale, 22538- 2549.2010.
Andrea Szabo, Caterina Perri, Anita Csato, Girolamo Giordano, Danilo Vuono and Janos B. Nagy. Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials. Materials 2010, 3, 3092-3140; doi:10.3390/ma3053092
Brenner, D. ―”Empirical potential for hydrocarbons for use in simulating the chemical vapor deposition of diamond films”. Physical Review B 42(15): 9458-9471, 1990.
Calvert, P. ―’Strength in disunity’. Nature 357: 365-366, 1992.
Che, G., B. Lakshmi, C. Martin and E. Fisher ―Chemical vapor deposition based on synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers using a template method.‖ Chemistry of Materials 10: 260-267, 1998.
T. W. Ebbesen & P. M. Ajayan, Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes, Nature 358, 220 - 222 (16 July 1992).
T. Guo. Nikolaev, P. Rinzler, A. G. Tomanek, D. Colbert, D. T.; Smalley, R.E. Self-assembly of tubular fullerenes. J. Phys. Chem. 99, 10694–10697, 1995.
Paradise, M.; Goswami, T. Carbon nanotubes-production and industrial application. Mat. Design, 28, 1477–1489, 2007.
Teo, K. B. K. Singh, Ch. Chhowalla, M.; Milne, W. I. Catalytic synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. In Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology; Nalwa, H. S., Ed.; American Scientific Publisher: Valencia, CA, USA; Volume 1, pp. 665–668, 2003.
Hou PX, Bai S, Yang GH, Liu C, Cheng HM. Multi-step purification of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 2002; 40: 81-85.
Yang W, Thordarson P, Gooding JJ, Ringer SP, Braet F. Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications. Nanotechnology 2007; 18: 412001.
Lacerda L, Bianco A, Prato M, Kostarelos K. Carbon nanotubes as nanomedicines: From toxicology to Pharmacology. Adv. Drug. Deli. Rev. 2006; 58:1460-1470.
Sayes CM, Liang F, Hudson JL, Mendez J, Guo W, Beach JM et al. Functionalization density dependence of single-walled carbon nanotubes cytotoxicity in vitro. Toxicol. Lett. 2006; 16: 135– 142.
Barroug A, Glimcher M. Hydroxyapatite crystals as a local delivery system for cisplatin: adsorption and release of cisplatin in vitro. J Orthop Res 2002; 20: 274-280.
Pai P, Nair K, Jamade S, Shah R, Ekshinge V, Jadhav N. Pharmaceutical applications of carbon tubes and nanohorns. Current Pharma Research Journal 2006; 1:11-15.
Ding R, Lu G, Yan Z, Wilson M. Recent advances in the preparation and utilization of carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2001: l7-29.
Kuznetsova A, Mawhinney D. Enhancement of adsorption inside of single-walled nanotubes: opening the entry ports. Chem Phys Lett 2000; 321: 292-296.
Arnab Mukherjee, Sanghamitra Majumdar, Alia D. Servin, Luca Pagano, Om Parkash Dhankher, and Jason C. White (2016). Carbon Nanomaterials in Agriculture. A Critical Review. Front. Plant Sci. 7:172. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00172.
Khot, L. R., Sankaran, S., Maja, J. M., Ehsani, R., and Schuster, E. W.(2012). Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural production and crop protection:a review. Crop Protect. 35, 64–70.doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2012.01.007.
Khodakovskaya, M., Dervishi, E., Mahmood, M., Xu, Y., Li, Z., Watanabe, F., et al. (2009). Carbon nanotubes are able to penetrate plant seed coat and dramatically affect seed germination and plant growth. ACSNano 3, 3221–3227. doi: 10.1021/nn900887m.
Lin, D., and Xing, B. (2007). Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth. Environ. Pollut. 150, 243– 250.doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.01.016.
Canas, J. E., Long, M., Nations, S., Vadan, R., Dai, L., Luo, M., etal. (2008). Effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of select crop species. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27, 1922–1931.doi: 10.1897/08-117.1.
Wild, E., and Jones, K. C. (2009). Novel method for the direct visualization of in vivo nanomaterials and chemical interactions in plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 5290–5294. doi:10.1021/es900065h.
Tripathi, S., Sonkar, S. K., and Sarkar, S. (2011). Growth stimulation of gram (Cicer arietinum) plant by water soluble carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale 3, 1176–1181. doi: 10.1039/c0nr00722f.
Mondal, A., Basu, R., Das,S., and Nandy, P. (2011). Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect. J. Nanopart. Res. 13, 4519–4528.doi:10.1007/s11051-011 0406-z.
Khodakovskaya, M. V., De Silva, K., Nedosekin, D. A., Dervishi, E., Biris, A. S., Shashkov, E. V., etal.(2011). Complex genetic, photothermal and photoacoustic analysis of nanoparticle-plant interactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 1028–1033.doi:10.1073/pnas.1008856108.
Khodakovskaya, M. V., De Silva, K., Biris, A. S., Dervishi, E., and Villagarcia, H. (2012). Carbon nanotubes induce growth enhancement of tobacco cells. ACS Nano 6, 2128– 2135. doi:10.1021/nn204643g.
Lahiani, M. H., Chen, J., Irin, F., Puretzky, A. A., Green, M. J., and Khodakovskaya, M. V. (2015). Interaction of carbon nanohorns with plants: uptake and biological effects. Carbon 81, 607-619.doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.09.095.
Xu, J., Tomimoto, H., and Nakayama, T. (2011). What is inside carbon nanohorn aggregates? Carbon 49, 2074–2078.doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2011.0 1.042.
Zhang, M., Gao, B., Chen, J., and Li, Y. (2015). Effects of grapheme on seed germination and seedling growth. J. Nanopart. Res. 17:78. doi: 10.1007/s11051- 015-2885-9.