Human Brain Biochemistry
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 122-134
Received: Jun. 1, 2014; Accepted: Jun. 22, 2014; Published: Jun. 30, 2014
Views 3773      Downloads 669
Author
Omar S. Hajjawi, Department of Biology, Arab American University, P.O. Box 240, Jenin, Israeli Occupied Territories of Palestine
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The human brain that serves as a center of the nervous system is structurally unique. It is extraordinarily complex and highly specialized in its distinct heterogeneous anatomical regions as its function remains a great challenge. The neuron is the functional unit that depends on special anatomical and chemical connections with other units of the system. The essential biochemical connections of the nerve cell have special morphological features: synaptic contact that is mediated by chemical molecules ensures sequential propagation of neurotransmission of electrical pulses through units of the system. The chemical energy expended in maintaining the distribution gradients of cations across cellular membranes, and the chemical neurotransmission causes an alteration in cation distribution. The energy utilization mechanisms that underlie cations re-distribution are not peculiar to the nervous system, but they are of particular importance to neural function because the mechanisms of chemical transmission are peculiar to the nervous system. Human nerve cells have the ability to generate electrical impulses that can travel through the body without a significant loss of impulse strength. Such unique features are based on semi-permeable excitable membranes that alter permeation to small chemical molecules and to cations. The biochemical function of the brain is demonstrated in the efficient production of energy required to accomplish the processes mentioned above, and it is essentially ATP that is stored and produced from glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. The brain has virtually no reserves of chemical energy (glucose 1-2 µmoles/g and ATP 3 µmoles/g) to function for minutes only, considering that this organ is 2% of total adult weight that consumes 20% of the whole body glucose through a constant blood supply. Yet, the various factors that regulate glucose uptake and its utilization in the central nervous system are not well understood. This review is an attempt to update the rapidly expanding information on human brain neurotransmission biochemistry, though the adaptive processes of learning; cognitive performance and memory in the brain have subtle relationships.
Keywords
Human Brain, CNS-Central Nervous System, Neurotransmitters, ATP-Adenosine Triphosphate, Cognition, Alzheimer’s Disease, Dopamine, Cerebral Blood Flow
To cite this article
Omar S. Hajjawi, Human Brain Biochemistry, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 122-134. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20140204.13
References
[1]
Carlsson M, Svensson K, Eriksson E, Carlsson A.(1985) “Rat brain serotonin: biochemical and functional evidence for a sex difference”, J.Neural. Transm, vol.63 (3-4), pp.297-313.
[2]
Schulz-Harder,B. and Keyserlingk, D.G.(1985) “Comparison of brain ribonucleases of rabbit, guinea pig, rat, mouse and gerbil”, Histochemistry, vol.88, pp.587-594.
[3]
Guridi, J., Herrero, M.T., Luquin, M.R., Guillén, J., Ruberg, M., Laguna, J., Vila, M., Javoy-Agid, F., Agid, Y., Hirsch, E. and Obeso, J.A. (1996) “Subthalamotomy in parkinsonian monkeys. Behavioural and biochemical analysis”, Brain, vol.119(5), pp.1717-1727.
[4]
Dwyer, D. (2002). Glucose metabolism in the brain, International Review of Neurobiology; vol.51. Boston, MA: Academic Press.
[5]
Rengachary, S.S. and Ellenbogen,R.G. (2005) Principles of Neurosurgery. Edinburgh: Elsevier Mosby.
[6]
Van Essen, D.C. ,Drury, H.A., Joshi, S. and Miller, M.I. (1998) “Functional and structural mapping of human cerebral cortex: solutions are in the surfaces”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.95 (3), pp.788-795.
[7]
Lynch, G. and Grange, R. (2008) Big Brain: The Origin and Future of Human Intelligence. Ashfield, MA: Paideia Publishers.
[8]
Hawks, J. (2011) “No brain expansion in Australopithecus boisei”, Am.J. Physical Anthropology, vol.146 (2), pp.155-160.
[9]
McIlwain, H. and Bachelard, H.S. (1985) Biochemistry and Central Nervous System, 5th edn. Edinburgh: Churchil Livingstone.
[10]
Previc, F.H. (2009) The Dopaminergic Mind in Human Evolution and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[11]
Barrett, K., Barman, S.M., Boitano, S. and Brooks, H.L. (2012) Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 24th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Lange, Inc.
[12]
Luders, E., Narr, K.L., Bilder, R.M., Szeszko, P.R., Gurbani, M.N., Hamilton, L., Toga, A.W. and Gaser, C. (2008) “Mapping the relationship between cortical convolution and intelligence: effects of gender”, Cereb. Cortex, vol.18 (9), pp. 2019-2026.
[13]
Rash, B.G. and Rakic, P. (2014) “Genetic resolutions of brain convolutions”, Science, vol. 343 (6172), pp. 744-745.
[14]
Broca, P. (1878) “Anatomie compare des circumvolutions cerebrales: le grande lobe limbique dans la serie des manmiferes”, Rev. Anthropol., vol.1, pp.385-498.
[15]
Luders, E., Narr, K.L., Thompson, P.M.. and Toga,A.W. (2009) “ Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence”, Intelligence, vol. 37 (2), pp. 156-163.
[16]
Yang, J.J., Yoon, U. Yun, H.J., Im, K., Choi, Y.Y., Kim, S.I., Lee, K.H. and Lee, J. M. (2011) “Prediction of human intelligence using morphometric characteristics of cerebral cortex”, Proc. World Congress on Eng. and Comp. Sci., vol. I WCECS 2011, October 19-21, 2011, San Francisco, USA.
[17]
Bae., B., Tietjen, I., Atabay, K., Evrony, G.D., Johnson, M.B., Asare, E., Wang, P.P., Murayama, A.Y., Im, K., Lisgo, S.N., Overman, L., Sestan, N., Chang, B.S.,Barkovich, A.J., Grant, P.E., Topcu, M., Politsky, J., Okano, H., Piao, X. and Walsh, C.A. (2014) “Evolutionarily Dynamic Alternative Splicing of GPR56 Regulates Regional Cerebral Cortical Patterning”, Science, vol.343 (6172), pp.764-768.
[18]
Carpenter, W.B. (1843) Principles of Human Physiology, with Their Chief Applications to Pathology, Hygiene and Forensic Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Blanchard.
[19]
Lorand, A. (1918) Building Human Intelligence. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
[20]
Armstrong, E., Schleicher, A., Omran, H., Curtis, M. and Zilles, K. (1995) “The ontogeny of human gyrification”, Cereb Cortex, vol.5, pp.56–63.
[21]
Fischl, B. and Dale, A.M. (2000) “Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA, vol. 97, pp.11050–11055.
[22]
Sternberg, R.J. and Kaufman, S.B. (2011) The Cambridge handbook of Intelligence. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[23]
Herlihy, B. (2013) The Human Body in Health and Illness. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.
[24]
Bachelard, H. and McIlwain, H. S. (1985). Biochemistry and the Central Nervous System, 5th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
[25]
Yakovlev, P. I. (1972) A Proposed Definition of the Limbic System, in Limbic System Mechanisms and Autonomic Function, Hockman, C.H. (ed.), pp. 241-283. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd.
[26]
Feinstein, J. S., Duff, M. C. and Tranel, D. (2010) “Sustained experience of emotion after loss of memory in patients with amnesia”, Proc. Natl. Acad.
[27]
McLean , P. (1954) “ The limbic system and its hippocampal formation”, J. Neurosurg, vol.11, pp.338-353.
[28]
Nauta, W. (1958) “ Hippocampal projections and related neuronal pathways to the mid-brain in the cat”, Brain , vol.81, pp.319-340.
[29]
LeDoux, J. (2003) “ The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdale”, Cell Mol. Neurobiol, vol.23, pp.727-738.
[30]
Haier, R.J., Jung, R.E., Yeo, R.C., Head, K. and Alkired, M.T. (2004) “Structural Brain variation and general intelligence”, Neuroimage, vol. 13 (1), pp.425-433.
[31]
Schoenemann, P.T. (2006) “Evolution of the size and functional areas of the human brain”, Annu.Rev. Anthropol., vol.35, pp. 379-406.
[32]
Love, R.J. and Webb, W.G. (1992) Neurology for the Speech-Language Pathologist. Burlington, MA :Butterworth-Heinemann Limited.
[33]
Madsen, P.L., Holm, S., Herning, M. and Lassen, N.A. (1993) “Average blood flow and oxygen uptake in the human brain during resting wakefulness: a critical appraisal of the Kety-Schmidt technique”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab, vol. 13 (4), pp. 646-655.
[34]
Taudorf, S., Berg.,R.M., Bailey, D.M. and Møller, K. (2009) “Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism measured with the Kety-Schmidt method using nitrous oxide”, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand., vol.53 (2), pp.159-167.
[35]
Ibaraki, M., Shinohara,Y., Nakamura, K., Miura,S., Kinoshita,.F. and Kinoshita, T. (2010 “Interindivdual variations of cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolism in relation to hemoglobin concentration measured by emission temography in humans”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 30(7), pp.1296-1305.
[36]
Ide, K. and Secher, N.H. (2000) “ Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during Exercise”, Proq. Neurobiol., vol. 61 (4), pp.397-414.
[37]
Siegel, G.T., Agranoff, B.W., Albers, R.W., Fisher, S.K. and Uhler, M.D. (1999) Neurochemistry, 6th edn. Philadelphia, PA : Lippincott-Raven.
[38]
Nau, R., Sörgel, F. and Eiffert, H. (2010) “Penetration of drugs through the blood cerebrospinal fluid/blood-brain barrier for treatment of central nervous system infections”.Penetration of Drugs through the Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid/Blood-Brain Barrier for Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections†, Clin. Microbial Rev., vol.23 (4), pp.858-883.
[39]
Hurst, E.W. and Davies, O.L. (1950) “Studies on the blood-brain barrier. II. Attempts to influence the passage of substances into the brain”, Brit. J. Pharmacol., vol. 5, pp. 147-164.
[40]
Choi, M., Ku, T., Chong, K., Yoon, J. and Choi, C. (2011) “Minimally invasive molecular delivery into the brain using optical modulation of vascular permeability”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 108 (22), pp.9256-9261.
[41]
Allsopp, G. and Gamble, H.J. (1979) “An electron microscopic study of the pericytes of the developing capillaries in human fetal brain muscle”, J. Anat., vol. 128 (1), pp.155-168.
[42]
Ballabh, P., Braun, A. and Nedergaard, M. (2004) “Anatomic analysis of blood vessels in germinal matrix, cerebral cortex and white matter in developing infants”, Pediatric Research, vol. 56, pp.117-124.
[43]
Christante, E., McArthur, S., Mauro, C., Maggioli, E., Romero, I.A., Wylezinska-Arridge, M., Couraud, P.O., Lopez-Tremoleda, J., Christian, H.C., Wekseler, B.B. Malaspina, A. and Solita, E. (2013) “ Identification of an essential endogenous regulator of blood-brain barrier integrity, and its pathological and therapeutic implications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 110 (3), pp. 832-841.
[44]
Smith, Q.R. (2000) “Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier”, J.Nutr. vol. 130 (4), pp. 1016S-1022S.
[45]
Hawkins, R.A. (2009) “The blood-brain barriers and glutamate”, Am., J. Clin. Natr., vol. 90 (3), pp. 867S-874S.
[46]
Löscher, W. and Potschka, H. (2005) “Blood-brain barrier active efflux transporters: ATP-binding cassette gene family”, Am.Soc. Exp. NeuroTherapeutics, vol. 21 (1), pp. 86-98.
[47]
Yin, B., Loike, T.D., Kako, Y., Weinstock, P.H., Breslow, J.L., Silverstein, S.C. and Goldberg, I.J. (1997) “Lipoprotein lipase regulates Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by microphages maintained in glucose-deficient medium”, J.Clin.Invest, vol. 100 (3), pp. 649-657.
[48]
Seyfried, T.N., Kiebish, M.A.,Marsh, J., Shelton, L.M., Huysentruyt, L.C. and Mukherjee, P. (2011) “ Metabolic management of brain cancer”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 1807 (6), pp. 577-594.
[49]
Yahr, M.D. (1978, April) “A physician for all seasons. James Parkinson 1755-1824”, Neurology, vol. 35 (4), pp. 185-188.
[50]
Berardelli, A., Rothwell, J.C., Thompson, P.D. and Hallett, M. (2011) “Pathophysiology of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease”, Brain, vol.124 (11), pp. 2131-2146.
[51]
Clark, R.E. and Squire, L.R. (1998) “Classical conditioning and brain systems: the role of awareness”, Science, vol.280, pp.77-81.
[52]
Wilk, S. and Stanly,M. (1978) “Dopamine metabolites in human brain”, Psychopharmacology, vol.57, pp.77-81.
[53]
Volkow, ND., Fowler, J.S., Gatley, S.J., Logan, J., Wang, G.J., Ding, Y.S and Dewey, S. (1996) “PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain”, J. Nucl. Med., vol.37 (7), pp.1242-1256.
[54]
Carlsson, A. and Carlsson, M. (2006) “ A dopaminergic deficit hypothesis of Schizophrenia: the path to discovery”, Dialogue Clin. Neurosci., vol. 8 (1), pp.137-142.
[55]
Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M. and Magnusson, T. (1957) “ 3,4-Dihydroxy phenylamine and 5-hydroxy tryptophan as reserpine antagonists”, Nature (London), vol. 180 (4596), p. 1200.
[56]
Beaulieu, J.M. and Gaintealinov, R.R. (2011) “The physiology, signaling and Pharmacology of dopamine receptors”, Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 63 (1), pp. 182-217.
[57]
Becker, M., Visser, L., van Schaik, R., Hofman,A., Uitterlinden,A. and Stricker, B. (2011) “OCT1 polymorphism is associated with response and survival time in anti-Parkinsonian drug users”, Neurogenetics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 79–82.
[58]
Barbeau, A. (1969) “L-Dopathrapy in Parkinson’s disease”, Can. Med. Ass. J.,vol.101 (13), pp.59-68.
[59]
Yee, R.E., Huang,S.C., Togasaki,D.M., Langston, J.W., Satyamurthy, N. and Barrio, J.R. (2002) “Imaging and therepeutics: the role of neuronal transport in the regional specificity of L.DOPA accumulation in brain”, Mol.Imaging Biol., vol. 4 (3), pp. 208-218.
[60]
Hajjawi, O. S. (2012) “ATP/ATPase and flux activities in human red blood cells”, European J.Sci. Res., vol. 93 (3), pp.422-433.
[61]
Hajjawi, O.S. (2013, March) “Ionic and osmotic equilibria of human red blood cells”, Am. J. Sci. Res., vol.86, pp.177-187.
[62]
Nelson, D.L. and Cox,M.M. (2008) Lehningr Principles of Biochemistry, 5th edn. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.
[63]
Singer,S.J. and Nicolson,G.L. (1972) “The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes”, Science, vol.175, pp.720-731.
[64]
Hodgkin, A.L., Huxley, A.F. and Katz, B. (1952) “Measurements of current voltage relations in the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo”, J. Physiol, vol.116 (4), pp.424-448.
[65]
Woodbury, J.W. (1965) “Action Potential: Properties of Excitable Membranes”, in Neurophysiology, Ruch, T.C., Patton, H.D. , Woodbury, J.W.and Towe, A.L. (eds.), 2nd edn, pp.26-57. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.
[66]
Feiner, A.S. and McEvoy, A.J. (1994) “The Nerst equation”, J.Chem.Edu., vol. 71(6), p.493.
[67]
Waser, R. (2012) Nanoelectronics and Information Technology, 3rd edn. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag &Co.
[68]
Katz, B. (1966) Nerve, Muscle and Synapse. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
[69]
Scott, W., Stevens, J. and Binder-Macleod, S.A. (2001) “Human skeletal muscle fiber type classification”, Physical Therapy, vol.81 (11), pp.1810-1816.
[70]
Marieb, E.N. and Hoehn, K. (2010) Human Anatomy & Physiology , 8th edn. San Francisco, CA : Benjamin Cummings.
[71]
Williams, R.W. and Herrup, K. (1988) “The control of neuron number”, Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol.11, pp. 423–53.
[72]
Crick, F.H.C. (1994) The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.
[73]
Wong, D.F., and Brasic, J.R. (2001) “In vivo imaging of neurotransmitter systems in neuropsychiatry”, Clinical Neuroscience Research, vol. 1, pp.35–45.
[74]
Wessells, N.K. and Hopson, J.L. (1988) Biology.New York, NY: Random House,Inc.
[75]
Sherwood, L. (2012) Human Physiology from Cells to Systems, 8th edn. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
[76]
Marois,R. and Ivanoff, J. (2005) “Capacity limits of information processing in the brain”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol.9 (6), pp.296-305.
[77]
Telford, C.W. (1931) “The refractory phase voluntary and associative responses”, J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 14 (1), pp.1-36.
[78]
Shalom, D.E. and Sigman, M. (2013) “Freedom and values in human sequential performance: a refractory period in eye-hand coordination”, J. Vision, vol. 13(3), pp.1-13.
[79]
Craver, C.F. (2002) “Interlevel experiments and multilevel mechanisms in the Neuroscience memory”, Philosophy of Science, vol.69 (S3), pp.83-97.
[80]
Purves, D., Augustine, G.J., Fitzpatrick, D., Katz, L.C., LaManita, A.S., McNamara, J.O. and Williams, S.M. (2001) Neuroscience, 2nd edn. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
[81]
Cole, K.S. (1949) “Dynamic electrical characteristics of squid axon membrane”, Arch. Sci. Physiol., vol.3, pp. 253-8.
[82]
Marmont, G. (1949) “Studies on the axon membrane. I. A new method”, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., vol.34, pp. 351-82.
[83]
Komreich, B.G. (2007) “The patch clamp technique: principles and considerations”,J.Vet.Cardiol, vol.9 (1), pp.25-37.
[84]
Young, J.Z. (1936) “The giant nerve fibers and epistellar body of Cephalopods”, Q. J. Microsc. Sci., vol.78, pp. 367-86.
[85]
Hodgkin, A.L. and Horowicz, P. (1959) “The influence of potassium and chloride ions on the membrane potential of single muscle fibers”, J. Physiol. (Lond.) , vol.148, pp. 127-60.
[86]
Perkins, K.L. (2006) “Cell-attached voltage-clamped current-clamp recording and stimulation technique in brain slices”, J.Neurosci. Methods, vol.154 (1-2), pp. 1-18.
[87]
Clusin, W.T. and Bennett, M.V.L. (1977) “Calcium-activated conductance in skate electroceptors”, J. General Physiol., vol.69, pp.145-182.
[88]
Schnich, R.M. and Miller, M.L. (1997) “Stochastic threshold characterization of the intensity of active channel dynamical action potential generation” ,J. Neuriphysiol., vol.78 (5), pp.2616-2630.
[89]
Terrenoire, C., Clancy, C.E., Cormier, K.J. and Kass, R.S. (2005) “Autonomic control of cardiac action potentials: role of potassium channel kinetics in response to sympathetic stimulation”, Circ.Res., vol.96 (5), pp.25-34.
[90]
Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.L., Matsudiara, P., Baltimore, D. and Barnell, J. (2000) Molecular Cell Biology, 4th edn. Ney York, NY: W.H.Freeman and Company.
[91]
Sheng, M. and Hoogenraad, C.C. (2007) “The postsynaptic architecture of excitatory synapses: a more quantitative view”, Annual Rev. Biochem , vol.76, pp.823-847.
[92]
Debanne, D. (2011) “Axon physiology”, Physiological Reviews, vol. 91, pp.555-602.
[93]
Finger, S. (2005) Minds Behind the Brain: A History of the Pioneers and Their Discoveries. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[94]
Dunlop, J., Bowlby, M., Peri, R., Vasilyev, D. and Arias, R. (2008) “ High Throughput electrophysiology : an emerging paradigm for ion channel screening and physiology”, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., vol. 7(4), pp.358-368.
[95]
Schmidt, C., Mayer, M. and Vogel, H. (2000) “A chip-based biosensor for the functional analysis of single ion channels”, Angewandte Chemie, vol. 39 (17), pp. 3137-3140.
[96]
Fertig, N, Blick, R.H. and Behrends, J.C. (2002) “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip”, Biophysical J, vol.82 (6), pp. 3056-3062.
[97]
Molnar,P. and Hickman, J.J. (2007) Patch-Clamp Methods and Protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
[98]
Pouvreau, S., Collet, C., Allard, B. and Jacquemond, V. (2007) “Whole-cell voltage clamp on skeletal muscle fibers with silicon-clamp technique”, Methods Mol.Biol., vol.403, pp.185-194.
[99]
Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B. and Trevor, A.J. (2011) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 12th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Division.
[100]
Berger, H. (1929) “Über das elektrenkephalogramm des menschen”, Archiv. Für Psychiatrie, vol.87 (1), pp.527-570.
[101]
Freeman, W.J. (1988) “Strange attractors that govern mammalian brain dynamics shown by trajectories of electroencephalography (EEG) potentials”, IEEE Trans. Cas. , vol. 35, pp. 781-784.
[102]
Robinson, T.E. and Becker, J.B. (1986) “Enduring changes in brain and behavior produced by chronic amphetamine administration: a review and evaluation of animal models of amphetamine psychosis”, Brain Res., vol.396 (2), pp.157-198.
[103]
Tselis, A. and Booss, J. (2003) “Behavioral consequences of infections of the central nervous system: with emphasis on viral infections”, J.Am.Ac. Psychiatry Law, vol.31, pp. 289-298.
[104]
Siegela, A., Roeling, TAP, Gregg,T.R. and Kruk, M.R.(1999) “Neuropharmacology of brain-stimulation-evoked aggression”, Neurosci. Biobehav.Rev.,vol.23, pp.359-389.
[105]
Gabriels, L., Cosyns, P., Nuttin, B., Demeulemeester, H. and Gybels, J. (2003) “Deep brain stimulation for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: psychopathological and neuropsychological outcome in three cases”, Acta Psychiatr Scand, vol.107,pp. 275–282.
[106]
Van Dijk, A., Mason, O., Klompmakers. A.A., Feenstra, M.G. and Denys, D. (2011) “Unilateral deep brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens core does not affect local monoamine release”, J. Neurosci. Methods, vol.202, pp. 113–118.
[107]
Lovinger, D.M.(1999) “The role of serotonin in alcohol’s effects on the brain”, Current Separations, vol.18 (1), pp. 23-28.
[108]
Barker, A.T., Jalinous, R. and Freeston, I.L. (1985) “Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex”, Lancet, vol.1, pp.1106–1107.
[109]
Sachdev, P., Loo., C., Mitchell, P. and Malhi, G. (2005) “Transcranial magnetic stimulation for deficit syndrome of schizophrenia: a pilot investigation”, Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., vol.59, pp.354–357.
[110]
Evans, R. W. (2009) "Diagnostic testing for migraine and other primary headaches", Neurologic Clinics., vol. 27 (2), pp. 393–415.
[111]
Marshall, L.F., Marshall, S.B., Klauber, M.R., Van Berkum ,C.M., Eisenberg H., Jane, J.A., Luerssen, T.G., Marmarou, A. and Foulkes, M.A. (1992) “The diagnosis of head injury requires a classification based on computed axial tomography”, J. Neurotrauma, vol. 9(1), pp.287-292.
[112]
Mueser, K.T. and Jeste, D.V. (2008) Clinical Handbook of Schizophrenia. New York, NY: The Guildord Press.
[113]
Wong, C.G., Bottiqlieri, T. and Snead, O.C. (2003) “GABA, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid , and neurological disease”, Ann. Neurol, vol. 54, pp.S3-12.
[114]
Chen, W. (2007) “Clinical applications of PET in brain tumors”, J. Nucl. Med., vol.48, pp.1468-1481.
[115]
Shaffer, J.L., Petrella, J.R., Sheldon, F.C., Choudhury, K.R., Calhoun, V.D, Coleman, R.E. and Doraiswamy, P.M. (2013) “Predicting cognitive decline in subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s disease by using combined cerebrospinal fluid, MR imaging, and PET biomarkers”, Radiology, vol. 266 (2), pp.583-591.
[116]
Markus, H. and Cullinane,M. (2001) “Severely impaired cerebrovascular reactivity predicts stroke and TIA risk in patients with carotid artery stenosis and occlusion”, Brain, vol.124, pp.457-467.
[117]
Fiehler, J., Foth, M., Knab, R., Von Bezold, M., Weiller, C., Zeumer, H. and Röther, J. (2002) “Severe ADC decreases do not predict irreversible tissue damage in humans”, Stroke, vol. 33, pp.79-86.
[118]
Wintermark,M., Sanellib, P.C., Albersc, G.W., Belod, J., Derdeyne, C., Hettsf, S.W.,Johnsong, M.H., Kidwellh, C., Levi, M.H., Liebeskindj, D.S., Rowleyk, H., Schaeferi,P.W., Sunshinel, J.L., Zaharchukm, G. and Meltzern, C.C.(2013) “Imaging recommendations for acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients: a joint statement by the American Society of Neuroradiology, the American College of Radiology, and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery”, Am.J.Neuroradiology, vol.34, pp..E117-E127.
[119]
Ryding, E. (1996) “SPECT measurements of brain function in dementia; a review”, Acta Neurol Scand, vol.168, pp.54–58.
[120]
Catafau, A.M. (2001) “Brain SPECT in clinical practice. Part 1: Perfusion”, J. Nucl. Med., vol.42, pp.259-271.
[121]
Paterson, L.M., Kornum, B.R., Nutt, D.J., Pike, V.W. and Knudsen, G.M. (2013)“5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT”, Med. Res. Rev., vol.33 (1), pp.54-111.
[122]
Daroff, R.B., Fenichel, G.M., Jankovic, J. and Mazziotta, J. (2012) Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice, 6th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, Inc.
[123]
Seifter, J., Ratner, A. and Sloane, D. (2005) Concepts in Medical Physiology. New York, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
[124]
Richards, D., Clark, T. and Clarke, C. (2007) The Human Brain and Its Disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[125]
Irish, M., Hodges, J.R. and Piguet, O. (2014) “Right anterior temporal lobe dysfunction underlies theory of mind impairments in semantic dementia”, Brain, vol.137 (4), pp.1241-1253.
[126]
Hillis, A.E. (2014) “Inability to empathize: brain lesions that disrupt sharing and understanding another’s emotions”, Brain, vol.137 (4), pp. 981-997.
[127]
Janušonis, S. (2014) Functional associations among G protein-couples neurotransmitter receptors in the human brain”, BMC Neuroscie, vol.15 (1), pp.16-35.
[128]
Henry, P.,Brown, M.T., Micklem, B.R., Magill, P.J. and Bolan, J.P. (2014) “Stereological and ultrastructural quantification of the afferent synaptome of individual neurons”, Brain Struct. Funct., vol.219 (2), pp.631-640.
[129]
Wessler, I. and Kirkpatrick, C.J. (2008) “Acetylcholine beyond neurons:the nonneuronal cholinergic system in humans”, Br.J.Pharmacol., vol.154 (8), pp.1558-1571.
[130]
Schutzer , S.E., Liu, T., Natelson, B.H., Angel, T.E., Schepmoes, A.A., Purvine, S.O., Hixson, K.K., Lipton, M.S., Camp II, D.G., Coyle, P.K., Smith, R.D. and Berguist, J. (2010) “Establishing the proteome of normal human cerebrospinal fluid”, PLoS ONE, vol. 5(6):e10980. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010980.
[131]
Kolarcik, C. and Bowser, R. (2006) “Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-based protein biomarkers for motor neuron disease”, Mol. Diagn. Ther., vol. 10 (5), PP. 281-292.
[132]
Tokuda, T. (2012) “Biomakers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis”, Brain Nerve, vol. 64 (5), pp.515-523.
[133]
Naskar, S., Sood, S.K., Goyal, V. and Dhara, M. (2010) “Mechanism(s) of deep brain stimulation and insights into cognitive outcomes in Parkinson’s diseas”, Brain. Res.Rev., vol.65(1), pp.1-13.
[134]
Kohl, S., Heekeren, K., Klosterkötter, J. and Kuhn, J. (2013) “Prepulse inhibition in psychiatric disorder—apart from Schizophrenia”, J. Psychiatr. Res., vol. 47 (4), pp.445-452.
[135]
Angelov, S.D., Dietrich, C., Krauss, J.K. and Schwabe, K. (2014) “Effect of deep brain stimulation in rats selectively bred for reduced prepulse inhibition”, Brain Stimul. pii: S1935-861X(14)00128-4. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.03.013.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186