Please enter verification code
Occurrence of High Acetic Acid-Producing Bacteria in Ivorian Cocoa Fermentation and Analysis of Their Response to Fermentative Stress
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 70-79
Received: Mar. 30, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 15, 2015; Published: May 5, 2015
Views 4756      Downloads 218
Souleymane Soumahoro, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Honoré Gnenéquidou Ouattara, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Bernadette Gblossi Goualié, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Gisèle Koua, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Ginette Doue, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Sébastien Lamine Niamke, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Article Tools
Follow on us
Acetic acid produced during cocoa fermentation impact strongly the quality of fermented and dried cocoa beans and chocolate. The objective of this study was to analyze acid production in Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and their response to fermentative conditions. AAB strains were isolated from cocoa fermentation and screened for acid production on both solid and liquid media. From 444 isolates, 15 strains yielded 2 to 38.1 g/L of acid in liquid medium. The best acid producers were identified by biochemical typing as Acetobactersp, Acetobacteraceti, A. peroxydans, A. pasteurianus and Gluconobacteroxydans. Most AAB strains showed strong tolerance to alcohol with round 45% of survival growth rate (SGR) under 12 % ethanol. AAB strains growing well at 2 % acetic acid (SGRround 47 %), failed to grow at 3 % of this acid. Lactic acid has the most hindering effect on AAB growth, provoking a drop of SGR from 100 % to less than 25 % at only 1 % of lactic acid. Maximum growth of acidifying AAB strains occurred at 35 °C. This study evidences the diversity of technological performances of AAB involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation and allows targeting the most valuable strains as starters.
AAB Growth, Acetic Acid Production, Acetobacter, Cocoa Fermentation, Stress Tolerance
To cite this article
Souleymane Soumahoro, Honoré Gnenéquidou Ouattara, Bernadette Gblossi Goualié, Gisèle Koua, Ginette Doue, Sébastien Lamine Niamke, Occurrence of High Acetic Acid-Producing Bacteria in Ivorian Cocoa Fermentation and Analysis of Their Response to Fermentative Stress, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 70-79. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20150303.12
Biehl, B., Voigt, J., Heinrichs, H., Senjuk, V. and Bytof, G. (1993).pH-dependent enzymatic formation of oligopeptides and amino acids, the aroma precursors in raw cocoa beans. In: Lafforest, J. (Ed.), Proceedings in XIth International Cocoa Research Conference. Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, Yamassoukro, Ivory Coast, pp. 717-722.
Schwan, R.F. and wheals, A.E. (2004). The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 44:204-221.
Lima,L.J.R., Almeida,M.H., Nout, M.J.R., Zwietering,M.H.(2011). TheobromacacaoL., “the food of the gods”: quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of the fermentation. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 52:731–761.
De Brito, E.S., Pezoa-Garcia, N.H., Gallao, M.I., Cortelazzo, A.L., Fevereiro, P.S. and Braga, M.R. (2000).Structural and chemical changes in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) during fermentation, drying and roasting.J. Sci. Food Agric. 81: 281–288.
Lefeber, T., Papalexandratou, Z., Gobert, W., Camu, N. and De Vuyst, L. (2012). On-farm implementation of starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavor of chocolate produced thereof. Food Microbiol. 30:379-392.
Crafack, M., Mikkelsen, M., Saerens,S., Kundsen, M.,Blenbow, A., Lowor,S.,Takrama, J., Swiegers,J., Petersen,G.B.,Heimdal, H. and Nielsen, D. S. (2013). Influencing cocoa flavor using Pichiaklutveri and Kluyveromycesmarxianus in a defined starter culture for cocoa fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 167:103-116.
Schwan, R. F. (1998). Cocoa fermentation conducted with a defined microbial cocktail inoculum. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 64:1477-1483.
Ardhana, M. and Fleet,G. (2003). The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia.Int. J. Food Microbiol. 86:87–99.
Nielsen, D.S., Teniola, O.D., Ban-Koffi, L., Owusu, M., Andersson, T., Holzapfel, W.H., (2007). The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture dependent and culture independent methods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 114: 168–186.
Ouattara, H.G., Ban-Koffi, L., Karou, G.T., Sangare, A., Niamke, S.L. and Diopoh, J.K., (2008). Implication of Bacillus sp. in the production of pectinolytic enzymes during cocoa fermentation.World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24: 1753-1760.
Papalexandratou, Z., Vranckena, G., De Bruyne, K., Vandamme, P. and De Vuyst, L. (2011). Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Food Microbiol. 28:1326–1338.
Hansen, C.E., delOlmo M., and Burri, C. (1998). Enzyme activities in cocoa beans during fermentation.J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:273–281.
Nielsen, D.S., Hønholt, S., Tano-Debrah, K., Jespersen, L. (2005). Yeast populations associated with Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Yeast. 22: 271–284.
Lefeber, T., Janssens, M., Camu, N., De Vuyst, L. (2010). Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media to compose a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.Appl. Env. Microbiol.76: 7708–7716.
Amin, I., Jinap, S. and Jamilah, B. (1998).Proteolytic activity (aspartic endoproteinase and carboxypeptidase) of cocoa bean during fermentation.J. Sci. Food Agric. 76: 123-128.
Forsyth, W. G. C. and Quesnel, V. C. 1963. Mechanisms of cocoa curing. Adv. Enzymol. 25:457-492.
De Vuyst, L., Lefeber, T., Papalexandratou, Z., Camu, N. (2010). The functional role of lactic acid bacteria in cocoa bean fermentation. In: Mozzi, F., Raya, R.R.,Vignolo, G.M. (Eds.), Biotechnology of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Novel Applications. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, pp. 301e326.
Lefeber, T., Gobert, W., Vrancken, G., Camu, N., De Vuyst, L. (2011). Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.FoodMicrobiol. 28: 457–464.
Yao, W., Ouattara,H.G. Goualie, B., Soumahoro, S. and Niamke,S. (2014). Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation. J. Appl. Biosci. 75:6282–6290.
Duthathai, F. and Pathom-Aree, W. (2007). Application of chemical dyes as colour indicator for selective isolation of acetic acid bacteria.Res. J. Microbiol. 2: 885-888.
Andelib, A.Y. and Nuran, D.A. (2009). Isolation of cellulose producing bacteria from wastes of vinegar fermentation. In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science Vol I, San Francisco, USA. pp. 978-988.
Nanda K., Taniguchi M., Ujike S., Ishihara N., Mori H., Ono H.andMurooka Y. (2001). Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in traditional acetic acid fermentation of rice vinegar (komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (kurosu) produced in Japan. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 67. 986-990.
Buchanan, R.E. and Gibbons, N.E. (1974). Bergey’s_s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (8th ed.). The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
Carr,J.G.(1968). Identification of acetic acid bacteria. In Identification methods for Microbiologists, Part B. Gibbs BM, Shapton DA (eds). Academic Press, London, pp 1-8.
Pereira, G.V.M., Migue, M.G.C.P.,Ramos,C.L.,SchwanR.F.(2012). Microbiological and Physicochemical characterization of small scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture. Appl. Env. Microbiol.78:5395-5405.
Samagaci L., Ouattara, H.G., Goualié, B.G. and Niamke, S. L. (2014). Growth capacity of yeasts potential starter strains under cocoa fermentation stress conditions in Ivory Coast. Emir. J. Food Agric.26 (10): 861-870.
Romero-Cortes, T., Robles-Olvera, V., Rodriguez-Jimenes, G. and Ramírez-Lepe, M. (2012). Isolation and characterization of acetic acid bacteria in cocoa fermentation. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 6. (2). 339-347.
Sharafi,S.M., Rasooli, I., Beheshti-Maal, K. (2010). Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous aceticacid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods.Iran. J. Microbiol. 2 (1): 41-48.
Konate, M., Akpa, E.E., Koffi,L.B.,Kra,K.A.S.,Megnanou R-M. andNiamkeS.(2014). Isolation of thermotolerant and high acetic acid-producing Acetobacterpasteurianusfrom Ivorian palm wine.Emir. J. Food Agric. 26 (9): 773-785.
Lu, S-F., Lee, F-L. and Chen, H.-K. (1998). A thermotolerant and high acetic acid-producing bacterium Acetobacter sp. I14–2.J. Appl. Microbiol. 86. 55-62.
Papalexandratou, Z., T.B. Lefeber, , B. Bahrim, O.S. Lee, H-M. Daniel and L. De Vuyst.(2013). Hanseniasporaopuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacterpasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process. Food Microbiol.35 : 73 – 85.
Vaughn, R.H.,Camargo, R.,Falanghe, H.,Mello-Ayres, G.,Serzedello, A.(1958). Observations on the microbiology of the coffee fermentation in Brazil.Food Technol. 12, 357–360.
Du Toit, W. J. and Pretorius, I. S. (2002). The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of acetic acid bacteria in winemaking.Annals of Microbiology. 52. 155-179.
Cashel, M., Gentry, D.R., Hernandez, V.J., and Vinella, D.(1996). The stringent response, p. 1458-1496.In F. C. Neidhardt, R. C. Curtiss III, J. L. Ingraham, E. C. C. Lin, K. B. Low, B. Magasanik, W. S. Reznikoff, M. Riley, M. Schaechter, and A. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology, 2nd ed., vol. 1.ASM Press, Washington, DC.
Lu S-F., Lee F-L.and Chen H-K. (1999). A thermotolerant and high acetic acid-producing bacterium Acetobacter sp.I14-2.J. Appl. Microbiol. 86. 55-62.
Holt, J.G., Krieg,N.R., Sneath, P.H.A. and Staley, J.T. (1994). Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland.
OuattaraD.H., OuattaraH.G.,GoualiéB.G., KouameL.M., NiamkeS.L,(2014). Biochemical and functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ivorian cocoa fermenting beans. J. Appl. Biosci. 77:6489– 6499 (2014).
Guehi, S.T., Dabone,S., Ban-Koffi,L.,Kra, D.K. and Zahouli, G.I. (2010). Effect of turning beans and fermentation method on the acidity and physical quality of raw cocoa beans. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2:163-171.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186