Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 267-277
Received: Oct. 24, 2015;
Accepted: Nov. 9, 2015;
Published: Dec. 21, 2015
Views 11924 Downloads 88
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications. Hank buffer salt (HBS) has been used as a medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was aimed to investigate the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of the PBS and HBS. The study was executed in two group’s i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as control and treated group had received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis indicated the increase in crystallite size by 5.20% in treated PBS as compared to the control. Similarly, the treated HBS also showed increase in crystallite size by 3.20% with respect to the control. Additionally, the treated PBS showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) as compared to the control sample. However, a decrease in Bragg’s angle of XRD peaks of the treated sample was noticed in the treated HBS. The DSC analysis of the control PBS showed melting temperature at 224.84°C; however melting temperature was not observed in the treated sample. However, DSC analysis of the treated HBS showed an increase in melting temperature (152.83°C) in comparison with the control (150.60°C). Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS was increased substantially by 108.83% as compared to the control. The TGA thermogram of the treated PBS showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (212°C) as compared to the control (199°C). Whereas, the treated HBS showed less weight loss comparing with the control sample. This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the both the treated PBS and HBS samples. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of treated PBS showed alterations in the frequency of the functional groups such as O-H, C-H, P=O, O=P-OH, and P-OH as compared to the control. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated HBS showed increase in frequency of calcium chloride phase (1444→1448 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Altogether, it was observed that biofield energy treatment had caused physical, thermal and spectral changes in the treated samples as compared to the control. It is assumed that biofield energy treated PBS and HBS could be a good prospect for biological and tissue culture applications.
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi,
Rakesh Kumar Mishra,
Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium, American Journal of BioScience.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 267-277.
Bolego C, Buccellati C, Prada A, Gaion RM, Folco G, et al. (2009) Critical role of COX-1 in prostacyclin production by human endothelial cells under modification of hydroperoxide tone. FASEB J 23: 605-612.
Wang HL, Miyauchi M, Takata T (2002) Initial attachment of osteoblasts to various guided bone regeneration membranes: An in vitro study. J Periodontal Res 37: 340-344.
Kalka C, Masuda H, Takahashi T, Kalka-Moll WM, Silver M, et al. (2000) Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization. PNAS 97: 3422-3427.
Moldenhauer A, Nociari MM, Dias S, Lalezari P, Moore MA (2003) Optimized culture conditions for the generation of dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes. Vox Sang 84: 228-236.
Pollreisz A, Assinger A, Hacker S, Hoetzenecker K, Schmid W (2008) Intravenous immunoglobulins induce CD32-mediated platelet aggregation in vitro. Br J Dermatol 159: 578-584.
Jing R, Wang H, Jiang S, Zhang Z (2008) Up-regulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) in esophageal cancer and down-regulation in lung cancer and their relationship to clinicopathological features. Lab Med 39: 661-667.
Lichtenauer M, Nickl S, Hoetzenecker K, Mangold A, Moser B, et al. (2009) Phosphate buffered saline containing calcium and magnesium elicits increased secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Lab Med 40: 290-293.
Harfi I, Corazza F, DHondt S, Sariban E (2005) Differential calcium regulation of proinflammatory activities in human neutrophils exposed to the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein. J Immunol 175: 4091-4102.
http://ccc.chem.pitt.edu/wipf/Web/HPLC_RP_Buffers.pdf (Accessed on 19 October 2015).
Nam JY, Kim HW, Lim KH, Shin HS, Logan BE (2010) Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells. Biosens Bioelectron 25: 1155-1159.
http://himedialabs.com/TD/TL1010.pdf (Accessed on 23 October 2015).
https://promega.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/what-makes-a-good-buffer (Accessed on 19 October 2015).
Uchida S, Iha T, Yamaoka K, Nitta K, Sugano H (2012) Effect of biofield therapy in the human brain. J Altern Complement Med 18: 875-879.
Suzuki K, Uchida S, Kimura T (2009) Safety and efficacy of biofield therapy in Japan. Soc Integr Med Jpn 2: 37-43.
Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL (2004) Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Semin Integr Med 2: 54-7.
Dabhade VV, Tallapragada RR, Trivedi MK (2009) Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders. Bull Mater Sci 32: 471-479.
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi A, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Biofield treatment: A potential strategy for modification of physical and thermal properties of indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J 6: 98.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Influence of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126.
Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and biotypic characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An impact of biofield treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7: 202-205.
Inoue M, Hirasawa I (2013) The relationship between crystal morphology and XRD peak intensity on CaSO4.2H2O. J Cryst Growth 380: 169-175.
Grzmil B, Kic B, Rabe M (2004) Inhibition of the anatase-rutile phase transformation with addition of K2O, P2O5, and Li2O. Chem Pap 58:410-414.
Jacob R, Nair HG, Isac J (2014) Optical band gap analysis of nano-crystalline ceramic PbSrCaCuO. JAP 5: 3.
Jacob R, Isac J (2014) Band gap energy profile of bsft (basr.9fe.1tio4). IJSRP 12: 1-6.
Kumar S, Tsai CJ, Nussinov R (2000) Factors enhancing protein thermostability. Protein Eng 13: 179-191.
Szabo L, Cik G, Lensy J (1996) Thermal stability increase of doped poly (hexadecylthiophene) by γ-radiation. Synt Met 78: 149-153.
Colthup NB (1975) Introduction to infrared and Raman spectroscopy. (2ndedn) Academic press. Inc., New York.
Portia SAU, Jayanthi K, Ramamoorthy K (2014) Growth and characterization of pure and disodium hydrogen phosphate mixed with potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal by using slow evaporation technique. Am J Biol Pharm Res 1: 77-82.