Preliminary Screening of Nutraceutical Potential of Fruit Pulp, Peel and Seeds from Annona Squamosa (L.) and Annona Muricata (L.) Growing in Coast Region of Kenya
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 7, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages: 58-70
Received: Mar. 6, 2019; Accepted: May 5, 2019; Published: Sep. 29, 2019
Views 26      Downloads 11
Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo, nstitute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases (ITROMID), College of Health Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Nairobi, Kenya
Suliman Essuman, Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical School, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
An evaluation of nutraceutical potential of fruit pulp, peel and seeds from Annona Squamosa (L.) and Annona Muricata (L.) was conducted. Ripe fresh fruits were collected from farms in Kilifi and Kwale Counties; Coast province of Kenya. They were air dried, powdered and then subjected to extraction with solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) for 48 hours, filtered and dried. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and Proximate and nutritional composition analysis was performed using methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Experimental results were expressed as mean from parallel measurements analyzed using mean separation through Fischer least significance difference by GenStat program. Comparisons were done by means of unpaired Student’s t-test and significance difference established by ANOVA at 95% confidence level. Differences of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The study revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins in hexane, ethyl acetate, Methanolic and aqueous extracts. High amount of dry matter (97.59±0.15mg/100g), WWB moisture content (82.38±1.61mg/100g), DWB moisture content (6.91±0.42mg/100g), crude fat (19.04±4.63mg/100g), crude proteins (44.01±6.93mg/100g), crude fibre (50.03±1.81mg/100g), total carbohydrates (38.24±2.18mg/100g) and oil content (48.57±2.07mg/100g) were detected. Appreciable values of reducing sugar (7.70±0.12mg/100g), TSS (19.67±1.47mg/100g), ascorbic acid (37.24±1.77mg/100g), tocopherol (29.66±1.07mg/100g), TBA (0.78±0.05mg/100g) and ash content (8.93±0.69mg/100g) were observed. Reasonable amounts of potassium (354.58±2.17mg/100g), sodium (843.38±16.25mg/100g), Calcium (857.16±6.39 mg/100g), Magnesium (395.54±4.58mg/100g) and Phosphorous (146.30±4.02 mg/100g) were detected whereas trace amounts of Copper (1.00±0.03mg/100g), Iron (3.58±0.12mg/100g), Zinc (0.46±0.04mg/100g) and Selenium (1.51±0.03mg/100g) were detected. Fatty acid profile showed presence of saturated fatty acids (SFA); Caprylic (C8:0), Capric (C10:0) (C12:0), Myristic (C14:0), Lauric Palmitic (C16:0) and Stearic (C18:0), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA); Oleic (C18:1) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); Linoleic (C18:2) and Linolenic (C18:3). The study concludes that the fruit pulp, peel and seeds from A. Squamosa and A. Muricata has potential to be utilized in nutraceutical industries.
Nutraceutical Composition, A. Squamosa and A. Muricata, Pulp, Peel and Seeds
To cite this article
Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo, Suliman Essuman, Preliminary Screening of Nutraceutical Potential of Fruit Pulp, Peel and Seeds from Annona Squamosa (L.) and Annona Muricata (L.) Growing in Coast Region of Kenya, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 58-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20190703.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hotta M, Ogata K, Nitta A, Hoshikawa K, Yanagi M and Yamazaki K. Useful plants of the world, Heibonsha LTD, Tokyo. 1989.
Leatemia JA and Isman MB. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) against lepidopteran pests and natural enemies). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 2004; 24 (02): 150-158.
Wu YC, Hung YC, Chang FR, Cosentino M, Wang HK and Lee KH. (Identification of ent-16β, 17-dihydroxykauran-19-oic acid as an anti-HIV principle and isolation of the new diterpenoids annosquamosins A and B from Annona squamosa). Journal of natural products, 1996; 59 (6): 635-637.
Vithanage HIMV. Pollen-stigma Interactions: Development and Cytochemistry of Stigma Papillae and their Secretions in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae). Annals of botany, 1984; 54 (2): 153-168.
Janzen DH and Martin PS. (Neotropical anachronisms: the fruits the gomphotheres ate). Science, 1982; 215 (4528): 19-27.
Pandey N and Barve D. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review on Annona squamosa Linn. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2011; 2 (4): 1404-1412.
Pinto AC, de Q, Cordeiro de Andrade SRM, Ferreira FR, Filgueiras HA, de C, Alves RE and Kinpara DI. Annona species. International Centre for Underutilised Crops, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. 2005.
Abubakar SM and Aburahman EM. “Useful plants in Control of insect pest.” Journal of Herbs, spices and medicinal plants. 1998; 6 (2): 49-54.
Biba VS, Lakshmi S, Dhanya GS and Remani P. Phytochemical analysis of Annona squamosa seed extracts). Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci, 2013; 29-31.
Chang FR, Wu YC and Duh CY. Studies of the acetogenins of Formosan Annonaceous plants. II. Cytotoxic Acetogenins from Annona muricata. Journal of Natural products. 1993; 56 (10): 1688-1694.
Cortes, D, Myint SH, Dupont B and Davaoust D. Bioactive acetogenins from the seeds of Annona cherimola. Phytochemistry. 1993; 32 (6): 1475-1482.
Cassady JM. Natural products as a source of potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventative agents. Journal of natural products. 1990; 53 (1): 23-41.
Rupprecht JK, Hui YH and McLaughlin JL. Annonaceous acetogenins: a review. J. Nat. Prod. 1990; 53: 237-278.
Igwe AC and Onabanjo AO. Chemotherapeutic effects of Annona senegalensi in Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Ann Trop med parasitol. 1989; 83 (5): 527-534.
Chatterjee A and Pakrashi SC. The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants, vol. 1. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (India). Publications & Information Directorate. 1997: 1.
Yoganarasimhan SN. Medicinal Plants of India. Tamil Nadu. Bangalore: Cyber Media. 2000; 2: 48.
Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Ltd; 2000; 1: 116.
Owuor BO and Kisangau DP. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2006. 2: 7.
Kumar R, Roopan SM, Prabhakarn A, Khanna VG and Chakroborty S. Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012; 90: 173e6.
Roopana SM, Bharathi A, Kumar R, Khanna VG, Prabhakarn A. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extract of Annona squamosa L peel as biomaterial for the reduction of palladium salts into nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012; 92: 209e21.
Nandhakumar E and Indumathi P. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol and Aqueous Extract of Annona squamosa (L.) Fruit Pulp. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies. 2013; 6 (3): 142–148
Maundu PM, Ngugi GW and Kabuye CHS. Traditional Food plants of Kenya. KENRIK, National museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya. 1999.
Kokwaro JO. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2nd edition, Kampala, Nairobi, Dares Salam, East Africa Literature Bureau. 1993.
Watt JM and Breyer-Brandwijk GM. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd Edition London, Livingstone. 1962.
Chimbevo ML, Malala JB, Anjili CO, Orwa J, Mibei EK, Ndeti CM, Muchiri FW, Sifuna PO, Oginga FO, Otundo DO and Karanja SM. Annonaceae Fruits Growing in Coast Region of Kenya as an Alternative Source of Dietary Carotenoids. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. 2017; 2 (5): 114-120.
Babu S, Satish S, Mohan, DC, Raghavendra MP and Raveesha KA. Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of some Iranian medicinal plants against plant pathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2007; 3 (2): 307-316.
Trease GE and Evans WC. Pharmacology, 11th ed. London, Bailliere Tindall Ltd. 1989; 60–75.
Harborne JB. Photochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis London: Chapman A. and Hall. 1973; 279.
Evans WC. Pharmacognosy, 15th ed. London: W. R. Saunders. 2002; 137–140.
Edeoga HO, Okwu DE and Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plant. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005; 4: 685–688.
Sofowara EA. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa New York: John Wiley and sons. 1982; 1–10.
Trease GE and Evans W. A textbook of pharmacognosy. 15th edition. Academic press, London, 2002; 578.
Spanos GA and Wrolstad RE. Influence of processing and storage on the phenolic composition of Thompson Seedless grape juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1990; 38: 1565–1571.
Kirk RS and Sawyer R. Pearson’s composition and analysis of foods. 9th edition, Longman Group Ltd., UK. 1991; 9-197.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 17th edition; Gaithersburg, MD, USA, Association of official analytical chemist. 2000.
Ranganna S. Manual of analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Tata MacGraw Hill Company Ltd, New Delhi. 1977; 21-60.
Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DB and Soutar DM. An introduction to GenStat for Windows, 14th Ed. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK. 2011.
Parry J, Hao Z, Luther M, Su L, Zhou K and Yu L. “Characterization of cold-pressed onion, parsley, cardamom, mullein, roasted pumpkin and milk thistle seed oils”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 2006; 83 (10): 847-54.
Alawa JN. Effects of three nigerian plants on the histopathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania major) and immunotherapy of leishmaniasis using DNA/protein vaccine in BALB/c mice. PhD Thesis, Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 2008.
Eloff JN. Conservation of Medicinal Plants: Selecting Medicinal Plants for research and gene banking. Monographs in systematic Botany from the Missouri Garden In: Conservation of plants Genes III: Conservation and utilization of African plants. Robert P. Adams and Janice E. Adams, eds., Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. 1998; 71: 209-222.
George AP, Broadley R and Nissen R. Preliminary review of the health and medicinal benefits of Annona spp. possible paths to commercialization. A confidential report for the Australian Custard Apple Growers Association. 2006.
Savithramma N, Linga-Rao M and Suhrulatha D. Screening of medicinal plants for secondary metabolites. ME. J. Sci. Res. 2011; 8 (3): 579-584.
Soni H, Sharma S, Patel SS, Mishra K and Singhai AK. Preliminary phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of flavenoids from methenolic extract of leaves of Annona squamosa. Int. Res. J. Pharma. 2011; 2 (5): 242-246.
Florence AR, Joselin J, Shynin-Brintha TS, Sukumaran S and Jeeva S. Preliminary phytochemical studies of select members of the family Annonaceae for bioactive constituents. Bioscience Discovery. 2014. 5 (1): 85-96.
Akiyama H, Fujii K, Yamasaki O, Oono T and Iwatsuki K. Antibacterial action of several tannins against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimirob Chemother. 2001; 48 (4): 487-91.
Etebu E. Differences in Fruit Size, Postharvest Pathology and Phytochemicals between Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu. Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2012; 2 (1): 52-61.
Onyechi U, Ibeanu U, Nkiruka V, Eme EP and Madubike K. Nutrient Phytochemical Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Soursop (Annona muricata) Pulp and Drink in South Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2012; 12 (6): 53-57.
Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HP. and Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: A review. British Journal of Nutrition. 2002; 88: 587–605.
EFSA. Compendium of botanicals that have been reported to contain toxic, addictive, psychotropic or other substances of concern on request of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA Journal. 2009; 7 (9): 100.
Onike R. “Phytochemical screening tests and medicinal values of plants active properties”. 2010.
Usunomena U. A Review of some African medicinal plants. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2012; 3 (4): 1-11.
Dembitsky VM, Poovarodom S, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Vearasilp S, Trakhtenberg S and Gorinstein S. The multiple nutrition properties of some exotic fruits: Biological activity and active metabolites. Food Research International. 2011; 44: 1671-1701.
Varadharajan V, Janarthanan UK and Krishnamurthy V. Physicochemical, phytochemical screening and profiling of secondary metabolites of Annona squamosa leaf extract. World Journal of Pharmaceutical research. 2012; 1 (4): 1143-1164.
Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M and Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2007; 39 (1): 44-84.
Lattanzio V, Lattanzio VMT and Cardinali A. Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. Editor: Imperato F. in Phytochemistry: Advances in Research. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, Kerala, India. 2006.
Othman OC, Fabian C. and Lugwisha E. Postharvest physicochemical properties of soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruits of Coast region, Tanzania. J. Food Nutri. Sci. 2014; 2 (5): 220-226.
Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of soursop (A. muricata). Plant Foods Human Nutr. 2002; 57: 165–171.
Mariod AA, Abdelwahab SI, Elkheir S, Ahmed YM, Fauzi PNM and Chuen CS. Antioxidant activity of different parts from Annona squamosa, and catunaregam nilotica methanolic extract. Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 2012; 11 (3): 249-257.
Lugwisha EH, Fabian C, Othman OC. Postharvest changes in physicochemical properties and level of some inorganic elements of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) of coast region Tanzania. Journal of food and Nutrition Science. 2016. 4 (3): 41-48.
Hocking PJ. Dry-matter production, mineral nutrient concentrations, and nutrient distribution and redistribution in irrigated spring wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 1994; 17 (8): 1289-1308.
Appiah F, Oduro I and Ellis WO. Proximate and mineral composition of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour as affected by fermentation. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011; 10 (7): 653-657.
Hussain K, Ismail Z, Sadikun A and Ibrahim P. Proximate and qualitative analysis of different parts of Piper sarmentosum, and quantification of total amides in various extracts. Phcog. Res. 2009; 1: 113–119.
Folorunso AE and Modupe OV. Comparative study on the biochemical properties of the fruits of some Annona species and their leaf architectural study. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj. 2007; 35 (1): 15-19.
Lim TK. Medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Fruits. 2012.
Pareek S, Yahia EM, Pareek OP and Kaushik RA. Postharvest physiology and technology of Annona fruits. Food Res. Int. 2011; 44: 1741–1751.
Morgan JB and Connolly EL. Plant Soil Interactions in Nutrient Uptake. Nature Education Knowledge. 2013; 4 (8): 2.
Barrette DM, Beaulieu JC and Shewfelt R. Color, Flavor, Texture, and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Desirable Levels, Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, and the Effects of Processing. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2010; 50: 369–389.
Worrell DBC, Seancarrington C and Hubber DJ. Growth, maturation and ripening of soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruit. Scientia Horticulturae. 1994; 57 (1-2): 7-15.
FAO/WHO. Fruit and Vegetables for Health. Report of a joint FAO/WHO workshop, Kobe, Japan. 2004.
Lozano JE. Chemical composition of fruits and its technological importance: In Fruit Manufacturing. 2006.
Wardlaw GM and Smith AM. Contemporary Nutrition. 7th Edn. McGraw Hill, New York. 2009; 163-199.
Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis RH, Ferreri S, Knudtson M, Koraym A, Waters V and Williams CL. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutrition Reviews. 2009; 67 (4): 188–205.
Champ M, Langkilde A, Brouns F, Kettlitz B and Collet YB. Advances in dietary fibre characterization. Definition of dietary fibre, physiological relevance, health benefits and analytical aspects. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2003; 16: 7182.
Wardlaw T, Salama P, Brocklehurst C, Chopra M and Mason E. Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done. 2009.
Zimmerman M and Snow ME. Nutrition Basics: An Active Approach. Boston, MA: Flat World. 2018.
Mariod AA, Elkheir S, Ahmed YM and Matthaus B. Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica seeds, the effect of the extraction method on the oil composition. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2010; 87: 763–769.
Rana VS. Fatty Oil and Fatty Acid Composition of Annona squamosa Linn. Seed Kernels. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2015; 15 (1).
Bozan B and Temelli F. “Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils”, Bioresource Technology. 2008; 99 (14): 6354-9.
Piombo G, Barouh N, Barea, B, Boulanger R, Brat P, Pina M and Villeneuve P. “Characterization of the seed oils from kiwi (Actinidia chinensis), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and guava (Psidium guajava)”, Ole ́agineux. 2006; 13 (2): 195-9.
Hofman, PJ, Vuthapanich, S, Whiley, AW, Klieber A, Simons DH. Tree yield and fruit minerals concentrations influence “Hass” avocado fruit quality. Sci. Hort. 2002; 92: 113–123.
USDA. Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. 2009; Release 22.
Mandle VS, Salunke SD, Gaikwad SM, Dande KG and Patil MM. Studies on Nutritional Value of Fruits in Latur District of Maharashtra State (India) with Special Reference to Iron Mineral. J. An. Sci. Adv. 2012; 2 (2): 344-346.
Daramola AO, Oladimwji MO, Oshodi AA and Popoola AV. Investigation of nutrient composition of selected vegetables and banana samples: In Federal University of Technology, Akure, Institutional repository. 2000.
Choi M, Scholl UI, Yue P, Bjorklund P, Zhao B, Nelson-Williams C, Ji W, Cho Y, Pael A and Men CJ. K+ channel mutations in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas and hereditary hypertension. Science. 2011; 331: 768–772.
Straub DA. Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: A review of forms, Doses and indications. Nutr. Clin. Pract. 2007; 22: 286–296.
Marinova D, Ribarova F and Atanassova M. Total phenolic and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. 2005; 40 (3): 255-260.
NRC. Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington D. C. USA. 1989.
Boakye AA, Wireko-Manu FD, Agbenorhevi JK and Oduro I. Dietary fibre, ascorbic acid and proximate composition of tropical underutilized fruits. Afr. J. Food Sci. 2014; 8 (6); 305-310.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186