The Effects that the Current Climate Crisis have on the Biogeography and Environment, Needed Adaptations and Conservation
This study is a literature review aiming to give a summary of the effects that the current anthropogenic caused climate crisis has on the biogeography and environment, and further give examples of likely future adaptations and needed conservation work. This study is based on scientific articles, primary from Web of Science and Google Scholar. The biodiversity is under pressure due to climate changes, the average species extinction is currently two to three orders of magnitude higher than the normal background extinction, and faster than the rate of origination. This development follows the predictions of The Red Queen Hypothesis that every species must constantly evolve due to environmental changes in order to avoid extinction. The natural environments are changing due to e.g. increased extreme weather events and ocean acidification. The increased heating is causing drought, and adaptations of the biota is needed, like more drought resistant flora and fauna with the ability to undergo estivation. The increased oceanic acidity can cause the shells of calcifying organisms to dissolve. These organisms will need to either spend energy on increased calcification or develop in a way so they can carry out live with lesser calcification. If organisms cannot develop, they are likely to migrate to colder regions. In the ocean this means towards polar areas and to greater depths, and in the terrestrial environment it is pole wards and to greater altitudes. Conservation is needed, and there are multiple options. Ex situ might be the only option for species whose natural habitat will be forever gone if the development of the climate change continues as present. To carry out conservation to infinity is unrealistic, and we are at a point where climate change is threatening our food security. It is possible to both slow down the current climate crisis and counteract its consequences.
Ida Krogsgaard Svendsen,
The Effects that the Current Climate Crisis have on the Biogeography and Environment, Needed Adaptations and Conservation, American Journal of BioScience.
Vol. 8, No. 1,
2020, pp. 20-27.
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