Please enter verification code
The Effects that the Current Climate Crisis have on the Biogeography and Environment, Needed Adaptations and Conservation
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages: 20-27
Received: Mar. 7, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 23, 2020; Published: Apr. 13, 2020
Views 442      Downloads 218
Ida Krogsgaard Svendsen, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study is a literature review aiming to give a summary of the effects that the current anthropogenic caused climate crisis has on the biogeography and environment, and further give examples of likely future adaptations and needed conservation work. This study is based on scientific articles, primary from Web of Science and Google Scholar. The biodiversity is under pressure due to climate changes, the average species extinction is currently two to three orders of magnitude higher than the normal background extinction, and faster than the rate of origination. This development follows the predictions of The Red Queen Hypothesis that every species must constantly evolve due to environmental changes in order to avoid extinction. The natural environments are changing due to e.g. increased extreme weather events and ocean acidification. The increased heating is causing drought, and adaptations of the biota is needed, like more drought resistant flora and fauna with the ability to undergo estivation. The increased oceanic acidity can cause the shells of calcifying organisms to dissolve. These organisms will need to either spend energy on increased calcification or develop in a way so they can carry out live with lesser calcification. If organisms cannot develop, they are likely to migrate to colder regions. In the ocean this means towards polar areas and to greater depths, and in the terrestrial environment it is pole wards and to greater altitudes. Conservation is needed, and there are multiple options. Ex situ might be the only option for species whose natural habitat will be forever gone if the development of the climate change continues as present. To carry out conservation to infinity is unrealistic, and we are at a point where climate change is threatening our food security. It is possible to both slow down the current climate crisis and counteract its consequences.
Climate Change, Biogeography, Conservation, Extreme Weather, Adaptations, Migration
To cite this article
Ida Krogsgaard Svendsen, The Effects that the Current Climate Crisis have on the Biogeography and Environment, Needed Adaptations and Conservation, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 20-27. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20200801.14
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hoffmann A. A., Sgrò C. M. (2011) Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature, 470, 479-485.
Stenseth N. C. (1979) Where have all the species gone? On the nature of extinction and the Red Queen Hypothesis. Oikos, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 196-227.
Wiens J. J. (2011) The causes of species richness patterns across space, time, and clades and the role of “ecological limits ”. Q. Rev. Biol. 86: 75–96.
Blier P. U., Lemieux H., Pichaud N. (2014) Holding our breath in our modern world: will mitochondria keep the pace with climate changes? Can. J. Zool. Vol. 92.
McCune A. R. (1982) On the Fallacy of Constant Extinction Rates. Evolution, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 610-614.
Futuyma D. J. (2013) evolution, third edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. USA.
Stanley S. M. (1987) Extinction. New York: Scientific American Books, Inc.
Barnosky A. D., Matzke N., Tomiya S., et. al. (2011) Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature, Vol 471.
Jablonski D. (2012) Paleontology in the twenty-first century. In D. Sepkoski and M. Ruse (Eds.). The Paleobiological revolution. Chicago Universtity Press. pp. 471-517.
Hoffmann M., Hilton-Taylor C., Angulo A., et. al. (2010) The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates. Science Vol 330.
Mora C., Rollo A., Tittensor D. P. (2013) Comment on “Can We Name Earth’s Species Before They Go Extinct?” Science Vol 341.
Santos A. M. C., Field R., Ricklefs R. E. (2016) New directions in island biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25, 751–768.
IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014, synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri and L. A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151.
Sabine C. L., Feely R. A., Gruber N, et. al. (2004) The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2. Science, Vol. 305.
Horwitz R., Hoogenboom M. O., Fine M. (2017) Spatial competition dynamics between reef corals under ocean acidification. Scientific Reports, 7: 40288.
Harley C. D. G., Hughes A. R., Hultgren K. M., et. al. (2006) The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecology Letters 9, 228–241.
Malmsheimer R. W., Heffernan P., Brink S., et. al. (2008) Forest Management Solutions for Mitigating Climate Change in the United States. Journal of Forestry.
Watson A. J., Schuster U., Bakker D. C. E., et. al. (2009) Tracking the Variable North AtlanticSink for Atmospheric CO2. Science, Vol. 326.
Riebesell U., Körtzinger A., Oschlies A. (2009) Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change. PNAS, Vol. 106, no. 49.
Pörtner H. O., Langenbuch M., Reipschläger A. (2004) Biological Impact of Elevated Ocean CO2 Concentrations: Lessons from Animal Physiology and Earth History. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 60, pp. 705–718.
World Ocean Review. Bollmann M., Bosch T., Colijn F., Ebinghaus R., Froese R., Güssow K., Khalilian S., Krastel S., et. al. (2010) world ocean review, Living with the ocean. Maribus.
Busch D. S., Maher M., Thibodeau P., McElhany P. (2014) Shell Condition and Survival of Puget Sound Pteropods Are Impaired by Ocean Acidification Conditions. PLOS ONE, Volume 9, Issue 8, e105884.
Bednaršek N., Harvey C. J., Kaplan I. C., Feely R. A., Možina J. (2016) Pteropods on the edge: Cumulative effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation. Progress in Oceanography 145, 1–24.
McNeil B. I., Matear R. J. (2008) Southern ocean acidification: a tipping point at 450-ppm atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (48), 18860–18864.
Lischka S., Büdenbender J., Boxhammer T., Riebesell U. (2011) Impact of ocean acidification and elevated temperatures on early juveniles of the polar shelled pteropod Limacina helicina: mortality, shell degradation, and shell growth. Biogeosciences, 8, 919–932.
Comeau S., Gorsky G., Jeffree R., Teyssié J.-L., Gattuso, J.-P. (2009) Impact of ocean acidification on a key Arctic pelagic mollusc (Limacina helicina). Biogeosciences 6, 1877-1882.
Moberg F., Folke C. (1999) Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems. Ecol. Econ. 29: 215–33.
van de Koppel J., van der Heide T., Altieri A. H., et. al. (2015) Long-Distance Interactions Regulate the Structure and Resilience of Coastal Ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 7: 139-58.
Jones A. M., Berkelmans R., van Oppen M. J. H., Mieog J. C., Sinclair W. (2008) A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization. Proc. R. Soc. B., 275, 1359-1365.
Britz R., Conway K. W. (2009) Osteology of Paedocypris, a Miniature and Highly Developmentally Truncated Fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae). Journal of Morphology 270: 389-412.
Allen C. D., Macalady A. K., Chenchouni H., Bachelet D., et. al (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 660-684.
Grose M. R., Fox-Hughes P., Harris R. M. B., Bindoff N. L. (2014) Changes to the drivers of fire weather with a warming climate–a case study of southeast Tasmania. Climatic Change, 124: 255-269.
Harvey B. J. (2016) Human-caused climate change is now a key driver of forest fire activity in the western United States. PNAS, Vol. 11, no. 42, 11649–11650.
Garbolino E., Sanseverino-Godfrin V., Hinojos-Mendoza G. (2016) Describing and predicting of the vegetation development of Corsica due to expected climate change and its impact on forest fire risk evolution. Safety Science 88, 180–186.
Pan Y., Birdsey R. A., Fang J., et al. (2011) A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests. Science, Vol 333.
Pechony O., Shindell D. T. (2010) Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century. PNAS, Vol 107, no. 45, eds. Chapin F. S., University of Alaska.
Vennetier M., Ripert C. (2009) Forest flora turnover with climate change in the Mediterranean region: A case study in Southeastern France. Forest Ecology and Management 258S, S56-S63.
West A. G. (2009) Climate change, drought and biodiversity: Anecophysiological perspective. SAAB Annual Meeting Abstracts.
Mitsopoulos I., Mallinis G., Karali A., Giannakopoulos C., Arianoutsou M. (2016) Mapping fire behaviour under changing climate in a Mediterranean landscape in Greece. Reg Environ Change, 16: 1929–1940.
Rasmussen O. (2005) Håndbog i Biologiske fagtermer, 2. edition. Gads Forlag.
Willmer P., Stone G., Johnston I. (2011) Environmental Physiology of Animals. Second edition, Blackwell Publishing.
Schwimmer H., Haim A. (2009) Physiological adaptations of small mammals to desert ecosystems. Integrative Zoology, 4: 357-366.
Hirabayashi Y., Kanae S., Emori S., Oki T., Kimoto M. (2008) Global projections of changing risks of floods and droughts in a changing climate. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 53: 4, 754-772.
Quataert E., Storlazzi C., van Rooijen A., Cheriton O., van Dongeren A. (2015) The influence of coral reefs and climate change on wave-driven flooding of tropical coastlines. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 6407–6415.
Natugonza V., Ogutu-Ohwayo R., Musinguzi L., Olokotum M., Naigaga S., Kitabona J. (2016) Implications of climate warming for hydrology and water balance of small shallow lakes: A case of Wamala and Kawi, Uganda. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 19: 4, 327-335.
Mac Nally R., Horrocks G. F. B., Lada H. (2017) Anuran responses to pressures from high-amplitude drought–flood–drought sequences under climate change. Climatic Change, 141: 243-257.
Feeley K. J., Rehm E. M. (2012) Amazon’s vulnerability to climate change heightened by deforestation and man-made dispersal barriers. Global Change Biology, 18, 3606–3614.
Bauera A., Farrella R., Goldblumb D. (2016) The geography of forest diversity and community changes under future climate conditions in the eastern United States. Écoscience, Vol. 23, NOS. 1-2, 41-53.
Brown E. A. (2012) Genetic explorations of recent human metabolic adaptations: hypotheses and evidence. Biol. Rev., 87, pp. 838-855.
Monge C., León-Velarde F. (1991) Physiological Adaptation to High Altitude: Oxygen Transport in Mammals and Birds. PHYSIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, the American Physiological Society Vol. 71, No. 4, 0031-9333.
Zhang Q., Gou W., Wang X., et. al. (2016) Genome Resequencing Identifies Unique Adaptations of Tibetan Chickens to Hypoxia and High-Dose Ultraviolet Radiation in High-Altitude Environments. Genome Biol. Evol. 8 (3): 765-776.
Dulvy N. K., Rogers S. I., Jennings S., Stelzenmüller V., Dye S. R., Skjoldal H. R. (2008) Climate Change and Deepening of the North Sea Fish Assemblage: A Biotic Indicator of Warming Seas. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 1029-1039.
Kortsch S., Primicerio R., Fossheim M., Dolgov A. V., Aschan M. (2015) Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists. Proc. R. Soc. B 282: 20151546.
Holopainen R., Lehtiniemi M., Meier H. E. M., et. al. (2016) Impacts of changing climate on the non-indigenous invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea by end of the twenty-first century. Biol Invasions, 18: 3015-3032.
Reuveny R. (2007) Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict. Political Geography 26, 656-673.
Fiz O., Vargas P., Alarcón M., Aedo C., et. al. (2008) Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Geraniaceae in Relation to Climate Changes and Pollination Ecology. Systematic Botany, 33 (2): 326-342.
Giannini T. C., Acosta A. L., Garófalo C. A., et. al. (2012) Pollination services at risk: Bee habitats will decrease owing to climate change in Brazil. Ecological Modelling 244 (2012) 127-131.
Schmidt N. M., Mosbacher J. B., Nielsen P. S., Rasmussen C., Høye T. T., Roslin T. (2016) An ecological function in crisis? The temporal overlap between plant flowering and pollinator function shrinks as the Arctic warms. Ecography 39: 1250-1252.
Bolmgren K., Eriksson O. (2015) Are mismatches the norm? Timing of flowering, fruiting, dispersal and germination and their fitness effects in Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae). Oikos 124: 639-648.
Tedeschin E., Rodríguez-Rajo F. J., Caramiello R., Jato V., Frenguelli G. (2006) The influence of climate changes in Platanus spp. pollination in Spain and Italy. Grana, 45: 3, 222-229.
Hegland S. G., Nielsen A., Lázaro A., Bjerknes A.-S., Totland Ø. (2009) How does climate warming affect plant-pollinator interactions? Ecology Letters, 12: 184-195.
Forrest J. R. K. (2015) Plant - pollinator interactions and phenological change: what can we learn about climate impacts from experiments and observations? Oikos 124: 4-13.
Hua F., Hu J., Liu Y., et. al. (2016) Community-wide changes in intertaxonomic temporal co-occurrence resulting from phenological shifts. Global Change Biology, 22, 1746-1754.
Coristine L. E., Soroye P., Soares R. N., Robillard C., Kerr T. J. (2016) Dispersal Limitation, Climate Change, and Practical Tools for Butterfly Conservation in Intensively Used Landscapes. Natural Areas Journal, 36 (4): 440-452.
Molnár V. A., Tökölyi J., Végvári Z., Sramkó G., Sulyok J., Barta Z. (2012) Pollination mode predicts phenological response to climate change in terrestrial orchids: a case study from central Europe. Journal of Ecology, 100, 1141-1152.
Bellard C., Bertelsmeier C., Leadley P, Thuiller W., Courchamp F. (2012) Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecol Lett., 15 (4): 365–377.
Giannini T. C., Acosta A. L., da Silva C. I., et. al. (2013) Identifying the areas to preserve passion fruit pollination service in Brazilian Tropical Savannas under climate change. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 171, 39-46.
Polce C., Garratt M. P., Termansen M., et. al. (2014) Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits. Global Change Biology, 20, 2815-2828.
Gallai N., Salles J.-M., Settele J., Vaissière B. E. (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68, 810-821.
Kaloveloni A., Tscheulin T., Vujic A., Radenkovic S., Petanidou T. (2015) Winners and losers of climate change for the genus Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae) across the Balkan Peninsula. Ecological Modelling 313, 201–211.
Barnosky A. D., Hadly E. A., Gonzalez P., et al. (2017) Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Science Vol 355, Issue 6325.
Stein B. A., Glick P., Edelson N., Staudt A. (2014) Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D. C., (eds.).
Groves C. R., Game E. T., Anderson M. G., et. al. (2012) Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning. Biodivers Conserv, 21: 1651-1671.
Jump A. S., Peñuelas J. (2005) Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters, 8: 1010-1020.
Heller N. E., Zavaleta E. S. (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation 142, 14-32.
Davis M. B., Shaw R. G. (2001) Range shifts and adaptive responses to quaternary climate change. Science, 292, 5517; ProQuest pg. 673.
Hunter M. L. Jr., Hutchinson A. (1994) The Virtues and Shortcomings of Parochialism: Conserving Species That Are Locally Rare, but Globally Common. Conservation Biology, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 1163-1165.
Olson D. M., Dinerstein E. (1998) The Global 200: A Representation Approach to Conserving the Earth's Most BiologicallyValuable Ecoregions. Conservation Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 502-515.
Brooks T. M., Mittermeier R. A., da Fonseca G. A. B., el. Al. (2006) Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities. Science, New Series, Vol. 313, No. 5783, pp. 58-61.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, D. C.
Lashof D. A., DeAngelo B. J. (1997) Terrestrial Ecosystem Feedbacks to Global Climate Change. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 22: 75-118.
Joppa L. N., Loarie S. R., Pimm S. L. (2008) On the protection of “protected areas”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 6673-6678.
Cronk Q. C. B. (1997) Islands: stability, diversity, conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 6, 477-493.
Wright S. D., Gillman L. N., Ross H. A., Keeling D. J. (2009) Slower Tempo of Microevolution in Island Birds: Implications for Conservation Biology. Evolution, 63 (9): 2275-2287.
Pereira H. M., Navarro L. M., Martins I. S. (2012) Global Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and the Unknown. The Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37: 25-50.
Soepadmo E. (1993) TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS AS CARBON SINKS. Chemosphere, Vol 27, No. 6, pp 1025-1039.
Reijnders L., Huijbregts M. A. J. (2008) Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases. Journal of Cleaner Production 16, 477-482.
Pereira H. M., Leadley P. W., Proença V., et al. (2010) Scenarios for Global Biodiversity in the 21st Century. Science Vol 330.
Tilman D., Fargione J., Wolff B., et. al. (2001) Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change. Science Vol 292.
Myers N., Kent J. (2003) New Consumers: The Influence of Affluence on the Environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol 100, No. 8, pp. 4963-4968.
Pimentel D., Pimentel M. (2003) Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. Am J Clin Nutr, 78 (suppl): 660S-3S.
Matthews E., Hammond A. (1999) Critical Consumption Trends and Implications: Degrading Earth’s Ecosystems. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Nandwani S. S. (1996) Solar cookers cheap technology with high ecological benefits. Ecological Economics 17, 73-81.
Dravid M. N., Chandak A., Phute S. U., Khadse R. K., Adchitre H. R., Kulkarni S. D. (2012) The use of solar energy for powering a portable autoclave. Journal of Hospital Infection 80, 345-347.
United Nations in India (2015), 14/5-2017, 4.35 p.m.
Adeney J. M., Christensen N. L., Pimm S. L. (2009) Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon. PLOS ONE 4, e5014.
Maxwell S. L., Rhodes J. R., Runge M. C., et. al. (2015) How much is new information worth? Evaluating the financial benefit of resolving management uncertainty. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 12–20.
Butt N., Possingham H. P., De Los Rios C., et. al. (2016a) Challenges in assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change to inform conservation actions. Biological Conservation 199, 10-15.
Griffith B., Scott J. M., Carpenter J. W., Redd C. (1989) Translocation as a Species Conservation Tool: Status and Strategy. Science; 245, 4917; ProQuest pg. 477.
Millar C. I., Stephenson N. L., Stephens S. L. (2007) Climate Change and Forests of the Future: Managing in the Face of Uncertainty. Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 2145-2151.
Barnosky A. D. (2009) Managing nature as Earth warms. Nature Vol 458.
Tricarico E. (2016) Do alien invasive species and climate change foster conservation behaviour? Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 26: 228-232.
Butt N., Whiting S., Dethmers K. (2016b) Identifying future sea turtle conservation areas under climate change. Biological Conservation 204, 189-196.
Kleiman D. G. (1989) Reintroduction of Captive Mammals for Conservation. BioScience, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 152-161.
Hunter M. L. Jr (2007) Climate Change and Moving Species: Furthering the Debate on Assisted Colonization. Conservation Biology Volume 21, No. 5, 1356-1358.
Payne B. L., Bro-Jørgensen J. (2016) A framework for prioritizing conservation translocations to mimic natural ecological processes under climate change: A case study with African antelopes. Biological Conservation 201, 230-236.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186