General and Specific Combing Ability of Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Line for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits Using 8×8 Diallel Crosses
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Pages: 45-56
Received: Jan. 13, 2020; Accepted: Feb. 25, 2020; Published: May 28, 2020
Views 85      Downloads 58
Woldu Mogesse, School of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences (CAES), Haramaya University (HU), Haramaya, Ethiopia
Habtamu Zelleke, School of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences (CAES), Haramaya University (HU), Haramaya, Ethiopia
Mandefro Nigussie, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Combining ability is the genotype's ability to pass the desired character to the offspring. Hence, combining ability information is needed to determine the crossed pairs in the formation of hybrid varieties. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate general and specific combining ability effects of maize inbred lines for yield and yield-related traits. Eight maize inbred lines were mated through a half diallel mating design (Griffing’s Method IV, Model I). The resulting twenty-eight F1 hybrids for twenty one characters were evaluated using Alpha-Lattice Design with three replications during 2018 main cropping season at Haramaya University Research Site (Raare). Genetic analysis of variance due to mean squares revealed significant differences for general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) effects indicated the presence of additive as well as non additive gene effects in governing the inheritance of these traits. These results confirm the possible involvement of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance of these characters and can be improved either by recurrent selection or even by heterosis breeding methods like production of hybrids, synthetics and composites. However, relative magnitude of these variances indicated that additive gene effects were more prominent for most of the characters studied since the ratio of GCA:SCA were more than unity in most of the traits. Parental line L3 and L8 were good general combiner for grain yield and L1, L2, L6 and L7 are desirable for earliness. The better performing four crosses L3×L6, L3×L8, L2×L5, and L6× L8 were good specific combiners for grain yield, which could be utilized for developing high yielding hybrid varieties as well as for exploiting hybrid vigor.
Combining Ability, Diallel, GCA, SCA
To cite this article
Woldu Mogesse, Habtamu Zelleke, Mandefro Nigussie, General and Specific Combing Ability of Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Line for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits Using 8×8 Diallel Crosses, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 45-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20200803.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Piperno, D. R. and Flannery, K. V. 2001. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 98: 2101-2103.
Hallauer, A. R., and J. B. Miranda. 1988. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Iowa, Ames.
Hallauer, A. R. 1990. Methods used in developing maize inbreds. Maydica, 35: 1–16.
Allard R. W. 1960. Principles of Plant Breeding 1st Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Kempthorne, O. 1957. An Introduction to Genetic Statistics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. London: Chapman & Hall Ltd. pp. 458-471.
Chukwu, S. C., E. O. Okporie, G. C. Onyishi, L. G. Ekwu, A. C. Nwogbaga and N. V. Ede. 2016. Application of diallel analyses in crop improvement. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 7 (2): 95-106.
Griffing, B. 1956. Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing system. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 9: 463-493.
Moneam, M. A. A., M. S. Sultan, S. E. Sadek and M. S. Shalof. 2015. Combining abilities for yield and yield components in diallel crosses of six new yellow maize inbred lines. International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 9 (2): 86-94.
Sprague G, Tatum L. 1942. General versus specific combining ability in single crosses of corn. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy, 34: 923-932.
Vacaro, E., Fernandex, J., Neto, B., Pegoraro, D. G., Nuss, C. N and Conceicao, L. H. 2002. Combining ability of twelve maize populations. Pesuisa Gropecuria Brasilerira, 37: 67-72.
Donald, C. M. 1962. In search of yield. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 28: 171-178.
Gudeta Napir. 2007. Heterosis and combining abilities in QPM versions of early generation highland maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. MSc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Demissew. A. 2014. Genetic diversity and combining ability of selected quality protein maize (QPM) inbred lines adapted to the highland agro-ecology of Ethiopia. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Plant Breeding, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science University of KwaZulu-Natal Republic of South Africa Pp. 45-47.
Mandefro Nigussie. 1998. Heterosis, combining ability and correlation in 8 x 8 diallel crosses of drought tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) populations. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Habtamu Zelleke, 2000. Combining ability for yield and other agronomic characters in inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). 60 (1): 63-70.
Dagne Wegary, Habtamu Zelleke, Temam Hussien, M. T. Labuschagne and H. Singh. 2007. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and its components in selected maize inbred lines. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 24 (3): 133-137.
Bello, O. B and Olaoye, G. 2009. Combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic characters in a typical southern guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria. Afri. Journal Biotechnol. 8: 2518-2522.
Gudeta Napir, Dagne Wogari and Habtamu Zeleke. 2015. Heterosis and combining ability of highland quality protein maize inbred lines. Maydica Electron Publication 60.
Hailegebrial, K., Getachew, A., Legesse, W. and Yemane, T. 2015. Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids, at Bako, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5 (15): 3195-3208.
Wende, A. 2013. Heterosis and combining ability of elite maize inbred lines for grain yield potential and reaction to Northern Corn Leaf Blight in the mid-altitude sub-humid agro ecologies. A thesis of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Plant Breeding. University of Kwa Zulu- Natal Republic of South Africa. pp. 123-152.
Tamirat Tessema, SentayehuAlamerew, DagneWegary and TemesgenMenamo. 2014. Test Cross Mean Performance and Combining Ability Study of Elite Lowland Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines at Melkassa, Ethiopia. Advanced Crop Science Technology, 2: 140.
Mostafa, M. A. N.; Abd-Elaziz, A. A.; Mahgoub, G. H. A. and El-Sherbiney, H. Y. S. 1996. Diallel analysis of grain yield and natural resistance to late wilt disease in newly developed inbred lines of maize. Bull. Fac. Agric., Cairo University, 47: 393-404.
Singh, P. K. and J. P. Shahi. 2010. Genetic analysis in maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Plant Sciences 5 (1): 302-305.
Melkamu Elmyhum. 2013. Estimation of combining ability and heterosis of quality protein maize inbred lines. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8 (48): 6309-6317.
Sugiharto, A. N., Nugraha, A. A., Waluyo, A., Ardiarini, N. R. 2018. ‘Assessment of combining ability and performance in corn For grain yield and yield components’, Journal by Innovative Scientific Information & Services Network, 15 (2): 1225–1236.
Lilian Gichuru, Kiarie Njoroge, Jane Ininda, and Lorroki Peter. 2011 combining ability of grain yield and agronomic traits in diverse maize lines with maize streak virus resistance for Eastern Africa region.
Mhike X, Lungu, D M and Vivek B. 2011. Combining ability studies amongst AREX and CIMMYT maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines under stress and non stress conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6 (8): 1952–1957.
Amiruzzaman M., Islam M. A., Hasan L., Kadir M., Rohman M. M. 2013. Heterosis and combining ability in a diallel among elite inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 25 (2): 132-137.
Girma, C. Hosana, Sentayehu Alamerew, B. T. & T. M. 2015. Test Cross Performance and Combining Ability, 15 (4).
Yazachew Genet, Pangirayi Tongoona and Beatrice Ifie. 2017. General and Specific Combining Ability Studies of Selected Tropical White Maize Inbred Lines for Yield and Yield Related Traits. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 7 (2): 381-396.
Tolera Keno, Mosisa Worku and Habtamu Zeleke. 2017. Combining ability and heterotic orientation of mid-altitude sub-humid tropical maize inbred lines for grain yield and related traits. African Journal of Plant Science, 11 (6): 229-239.
Mieso Keweti Shengu, Dagne Wegary Gissa, Habtamu Zelleke and Lealem Tilahun. 2016. Combining ability analysis of early maturing maize (Zea mays. L) inbred lines in central rift valley of Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 6 (8): 551-563.
Matin, M. Q. I., Rasul, M. G., Islam, A., Mian, M. K., Ivy, N. A., & Ahmed, J. U. 2017. Combining Ability and Heterosis in Maize (Zea mays L.). American Journal of Biological Science, 4 (6): 84-90.
Munkvold GP, Osweiler G and Hartwig N. 1997. Corn Ear Rots, Storage Molds, Mycotoxins, and Animal Health Corn EarRots, Storage Molds, Extension and Outreach Publications, 24: 4–1997.
Sandesh, G. M. Karthikeyan, A. Kavithamani, D. Thangaraj, K. Ganesan, K. N. Ravikesavan and Senthil N. 2018. Heterosis and combining ability studies for yield and its component traits in Maize (Zea mays L.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 9 (3): 1012-1023.
Gemechu Nedi, Leta Tulu, Sentayehu Alamerew and Dagne Wakgery. 2018. ‘Combining ability of selected maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for major diseases, grain yield and selected agronomic traits evaluated at Melko, South West Oromia region, Ethiopia’. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13 (38): 1998–2005.
Hosana GC, Alamerew S, Tadesse B. and Menamo T. 2015. Test cross performance and combining ability of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines at Bako, Western Ethiopia. Global Journal INC. (USA), 15 (4).
Al-falahy MAH. 2015. Estimation combining ability, Heterosis and some genetic parameters across four environments using full diallel cross method. International Journal of Pure and Applied Seciences and Technology, 26 (1): 34–44.
Divan R, Khorasani SK, Ebrahimi A and Bakhtiari S. 2013. Study on Combining Ability and Gene Effects in inbred lines and single Cross hybrids of Forage maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4 (6): 1290–1297.
Dagne Wegary, B. S. Vivek, Birhanu Tadesse, Koste Abdissa, Mosisa Worku and Legesse Wolde, 2010. Combining abilitiy and Heterotic Relationship between CIMMYT and Ethiopian Maize Inbred lines. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Science. 20, 82-93.
Pavan R., Prakash G and Mallikarjuna NM. 2016. General and specific combining ability studies in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.). Current Biotica, 5: 196–208.
Aminu, D., Mohammed, S. G., Kabir, B. G. 2014. Estimates of combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield traits in maize population (Zea mays L.): under drought conditions in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savanna zones of Bornostate, Nigeria. IJAIR, 2 (5): 824-830.
Amare Seyoum, Dagne Wegary and Sentayehu Alamerew. 2016. Combining ability of elite highland maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines at Jimma Dedo, South West Ethiopia. Advances in Crop Science and Technology, 4: 212.
Shushay Wolderufael, Habtamu Zeleke and Dagne Wagary. 2013. Line x tester analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield related traits. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3 (5): 12–19.
Legesse Wolde., K. V. Pixely and A. M. Botha. 2009. Combining and heterotic grouping of highland transition maize inbred lines. Maydica, 54 (2009): 1–9.
Berhanu T. 2009. Heterosis and Combining Ability for Yield, Yield Related Parameters and Stover Quality Traits for Food-Feed in maize (Zea Mays L.) adapted to the mid-altitude agro-ecology of Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia, pp 89-152.
Ali Abdikadir Hassan, Abubakar Ali Jama, Omar Hassan Mohamed, Bhabendra Kumar Biswas. 2019. Study on Combining Ability and Heterosis in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Partial Diallel Analysis. International Journal of plant breeding and crop science, 6 (2): 520-526.
Gomez, A. K. and A. A. Gomez. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd edition. John and Sons Inc., Institute of Science publication, New York.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186