Physico-Chemical Analysis of Waste Water Used for Agricultural Purpose in Surrounding of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, November 2014, Pages: 39-42
Received: Aug. 4, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 8, 2014;
Published: Sep. 2, 2014
Views 3353 Downloads 116
Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi, Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Khalid Hussain Lashari, Department of Fresh Water Biology and fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Zameer Ali Palh, Department of Fresh Water Biology and fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
T. Jabeen Ursani, Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Anila Naz Soomro, Department of Fresh Water Biology and fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Zulfiqar Ali Laghari, Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Abdul Waheed Mastoi, Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Irrigation with sewage is common practice of the farmers living in surrounding areas of urban colonies in Pakistan. Sewage contains a complex mixture of impurities. Waste water used for agricultural purpose without any treatment though it contains lot of the harmful impurities. During this study three villages were selected around the Hyderabad city and 12 samples were collected. Various characteristics of the sewage samples were determined such as total residues, total fixed residues, volatile residues, salinity, alkalinity, TDS, temperature, color, pH, conductivity, etc. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of waste water. It was found that waste water had moderate to increased hardness and salinity. Moreover, these water samples contained from 300 to 1800 mg/L of total residues. Nevertheless the pH-value was normal, in the range 6.7-7.0, that is suitable for water used for irrigation. Further investigations are required to determine toxicity of the waste water, as well as content and accumulation of heavy metals.
Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi,
Khalid Hussain Lashari,
Zameer Ali Palh,
T. Jabeen Ursani,
Anila Naz Soomro,
Zulfiqar Ali Laghari,
Abdul Waheed Mastoi,
Physico-Chemical Analysis of Waste Water Used for Agricultural Purpose in Surrounding of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, American Journal of BioScience. Special Issue:Chemical Biology.
Vol. 2, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 39-42.
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1995. Guidelines for water supply 7th edition New York, WHO press.144-162.
World Health Organization. 2004. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3rd edition Switzerland. WHO press.16:89
World Health Organization. 2006. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3rd edition Switzerland. WHO press.33: 71-115.
Basavaraja, Simpi,S.M, Hiremath, KNS.Murthy, K.N. Chandrashekarappa, Anil N Patel, E.T.Puttiah. 2011, Analysis of water quality using physio-chemical partameter hosahalli tank in shimoga Distric, Karnataka , India, Global Journal of Science Frontier, Research. 1(3):31-34.
I. Jeroen, H.J. Ensink, Tariq Mahmood, Wim van der Hoek, Liqa Raschid-Sally, Felix P. 2004. Amerasinghe. A nationwide assessment of wastewater use in Pakistan: an obscure activity or a vitally important one? Water Policy 6:197–206.
Hussain, I. Raschid, L. Hanjra, M. A. Marikar, F. Hoek, W. van der. 2002. Wastewater use in agriculture: review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts.IWMI Working Paper. 37:55.
O Amahmid, S Asmama, K Bouhoum. 1999. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology.49(1–2):19–26.
M. Al-Shammiri, A. Al-Saffar, S. Bohamad, M. Ahmed. 2005. Waste water quality and reuse in irrigation in Kuwait using microfiltration technology in treatment. Desalination. 185(1–3):213–225.
Emad A Shalaby. 2011. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 1(3):243–248.
M.N. Rojas-Valencia, M.T. Orta de Velasquez, Víctor Franco. 2011. Urban agriculture, using sustainable practices that involve the reuse of wastewater and solid waste Agricultural Water Management. 98(9):1388–1394.
E. Topp, A. Scott, D.R. Lapen, E. Lyautey, P. Duriez. 2009. Livestock waste treatment systems for reducing environmental exposure to hazardous enteric pathogens: Some considerations. Bioresource Technology. 100(22):5395–5398.
Guohua Chen. 2004. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Separation and Purification Technology. 38(1):11–41.
Anke Gobel, Christa S. McArdell, Adriano Joss, Hansruedi Siegrist, Walter Giger. 2007. Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies. Science of The Total Environment. 372(2–3):361–371.
DA Hammer. 1989. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: municipal, industrial and agricultural- 1989 - books.google.com.
PF Cooper, BC Findlater. 1990. Constructed wetlands in water pollution control.- 1990 - cabdirect.org.
Q.W. Yang, Y. Xu, S.J. Liu, J.F. He, F.Y. Long. 2011. Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 74:1664–1669.
F.A. Jan, M. Ishaq, S. Khan, I. Ihsanullah, I. Ahmad, M. Shakirullah. 2010. A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir).. J. Hazard. Mater. 179:612–621.
M.T. Shah, B. Shaheen, S. Khan. 2010. Pedo and biogeochemical studies of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Mingora and Kabal areas, Swat, Pakistan. Environ. Earth Sci. 60:1091–1102.
C.B. Sekomo, E. Nkurang, D.P. Rousseau, P.N. Lens. 2011. Fate of heavy metals in an urban natural wetland: The Nyabugogo Swamp (Rwanda).Water Air Soil Pollut. 214 :321–333.
M.A. Radwan, A.K. Salama. 2006. Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (8):1273–1278.
S. Khan, S. Rehman, A.Z. Khan, M.A. Khan, M.T. Shah. 2010. Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.73:1820–1827.
S. Khan, Q. Cao, Y.M. Zheng, Y.Z. Huang, Y.G. Zhu. 2008. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution. 152(3):686–692.
R.K. Rattan, S.P. Datta, P.K. Chhonkar, K. Suribabu, A.K. Singh. 2005. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater-a case study. Agriculture. Ecosystem and Environment. 109:310–322
V. Iyengar, P. Nair. 2000. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium. Science of the Total Environment. 249:331–346,
Khalid Hamid Sheikh, Muhammad Irshad. 1980. Wastewater Effluents from a Tannery: Their Effects on Soil and Vegetation in Pakistan. Environmental Conservation. 7(04):319-324.
M. K. Jamali, T. G. Kazi, M. B. Arain, H. I. Afridi, N. Jalbani, A. R. Memon. 2007. Heavy Metal Contents of Vegetables Grown in Soil, Irrigated with Mixtures of Wastewater and Sewage Sludge in Pakistan, using Ultrasonic-Assisted Pseudo-digestion. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 193(3):218–228.
Mukhtar M, Herrel N, Amerasinghe FP, Ensink J, van der Hoek W, Konradsen F. 2003. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 34(1): 72-80
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). 1997. Chemical analysis manual for food and water. J.Agric FoodChemical. 1(2): 20-26
Robert H. Kadlec, K. R. Reddy. 2001. Temperature Effects in Treatment Wetlands. Water Environment Research. 73(5):543-557.
J V Ward, J A Stanford. 1982 Thermal Responses in the Evolutionary Ecology of Aquatic Insects. Annual Review of Entomology. 27: 97-117.
Paul A. White, Jacob Kalff, Joseph B. Rasmussen, Josep M. Gasol. 1991. The effect of temperature and algal biomass on bacterial production and specific growth rate in freshwater and marine habitatsMicrobial Ecology . 21(1):99-118.
Patil.P.N, Sawant. D.V, Deshmukh. R.N. 2012. Physio-Chemical parameters for testing of water- A review. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 3(3):1194-1207.