Anatomical and Histological Study of the Effect of Lead on Hepatocytes of Albino Rats
International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2015, Pages: 34-45
Received: Jul. 14, 2015;
Accepted: Jul. 27, 2015;
Published: Aug. 6, 2015
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El Sayed Aly Mohamed Metwally, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Fathia Ahmed Negm, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Rania Ali Shams El-din, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Eman Mohammed Nabil, Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Lead is found at low levels in Earth’s crust, mainly as lead sulfide. Lead is toxic for virtually all organs of the body and has significant debilitating effects on the nervous, renal, hepatic and hematopoietic systems. The liver is considered as one of the target organs affected by lead toxicity owing to its site of storage after exposure. Also, the liver is being one of the major organs involved in the biotransformation and detoxification of toxic substances. Absorbed lead is stored in soft tissues mainly in the liver via the portal vein, so that it is the first organ for which the histological analysis can be used to examine the morphological changes that reflect possible lead effects on somatic cells. The present study aimed to determine the structural damage in the liver by histological study and biochemical assay of liver enzyme levels. 45 rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I (control group) included 15 rats that were given distilled water by orogastric tube. Group II (experimental group) included 15 rats that were given lead acetate in a dose of 4mg/kg body weight by orogastric tube for two weeks. Group III (experimental group) included 15 rats given lead acetate by the same route and dose for four weeks. Significant increase of liver enzymes SGPT and SGOT was observed in experimental groups (group II and III). Administration of lead acetate for 2 weeks (group II) induced alteration in the hepatic architecture as evident by some of the hepatocytes appeared with acidophilic slightly vacuolated granular cytoplasm while others showed markedly vacuolated hypereosinophilic cytoplasm, Mononuclear cellular infiltration was seen in the portal tract. While in Group III, diffuse affection of the hepatic lobule was evident by extensive vacuolation of the hepatocyte cytoplasm, dark and eccentric nuclei. Others showed kayolytic nucleus, congested central vein, narrow or even obliterated blood sinusoids. The portal area revealed proliferation of bile ducts and congestion of its vessels. The hepatic architecture was disorganized with marked affection of the hepatocytes. In conclusion it was found that lead acetate is toxic to liver and this toxicity is paralleled with increased duration of exposure.
El Sayed Aly Mohamed Metwally,
Fathia Ahmed Negm,
Rania Ali Shams El-din,
Eman Mohammed Nabil,
Anatomical and Histological Study of the Effect of Lead on Hepatocytes of Albino Rats, International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 34-45.
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