ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D) Polymorphism in Hypertensive Patients of Palestinian Population
International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume 4, Issue 2, October 2016, Pages: 6-10
Received: Sep. 5, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 21, 2016; Published: Oct. 10, 2016
Views 2972      Downloads 127
Author
Lamia'a Sobhi Saqer, Medical Sciences Department, University College of Science and Technology, Gaza Strip, Palestine
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal failure; resulting from interaction of several genes with each other and with environmental factors. The renin-angiotensin system(RAS) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme of the RAS. ACE ID gene polymorphism has been associated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to determine the frequencies of the ACE gene alleles D and I and any associations to hypertension risk factors in Palestinian population. Genomic DNA was isolated from 293 subjects who have participated in a case–control study. ACE gene ID polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 193 hypertension cases and 100 healthy controls. The frequency of ACE genotype were: DD 62.2%, II 6.7% and ID 31.1%,while as in control group the DD frequency is 54.0%, II 4. 0% and ID 42.0%. The frequencies of the ACE D and I alleles of the study population were 0.78 and 0.22for case group, 0.75 and 0.25 for control group respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to genotype distribution. Furthermore, we did not find any significant difference in the frequency of ACE ID polymorphism in hypertension subjects when stratified by gender (p = 0.61).The results showed that there was no significant association between the ACE ID gene polymorphism and hypertension in Gaza strip.
Keywords
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene, Hypertension, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism
To cite this article
Lamia'a Sobhi Saqer, ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D) Polymorphism in Hypertensive Patients of Palestinian Population, International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 6-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbmr.20160402.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Pereira AC, Mota GF, Cunha RS, Herbenhoff FL, Mill JG, Krieger JE: Angiotensinogen 235T allele "dosage" is associated with blood pressure phenotypes. Hypertension 2003, 41: 25-30.
[2]
Mourad JJ, Ducailar G, Rudnicki A, Lajemi M, Mimran A, Safar ME. Age-related increase of pulse pressure and gene polymorphisms in essential hypertension: a preliminary study. Journal Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syststem 2002; 3: 109-115.
[3]
Higaki, J., Baba, S., Katsuya, T., Sato, N., Ishikawa, K., Mannami, T., Ogata, J. and Ogihara T. (2000) Deletion allele of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene increases risk of essential hypertension in Japanese men. Circulation 101, 2060-2065.
[4]
Wang JG, Staessen JA. Genetic polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system: relevance for susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. European Journal of Pharmacology 2000; 410 (2-3): 289-302.
[5]
Brewster UC, Perazella MA. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kidney: effects on kidney disease. American Journal of Medicine. 2004; 116: 263–272.
[6]
Carluccio M, Soccio M, De Caterina R. Aspects of gene polymorphisms in cardiovascular disease: the renin-angiotensin system. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001; 31: 476–488.
[7]
Rigat B, Hubert C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Cambien F, Corvol P, Soubrier F: An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angio-tensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1990, 86: 1343–1346.
[8]
Rigat B, Hubert C, Corvol P, Soubrier F: PCR detection of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the human angiotensin converting enzyme gene (DCP1) (dipeptidyl carboxipeptidase 1). Nucleic Acids Research 20: 1433, 1992.
[9]
Hubert H, Houot Am, Corvol P, Soubrier F: Structure of the angiotensin I converting enzyme gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266: 15377–15383, 1991.
[10]
Danser Ahj, Schalekamp Madh, Bax Wa, Van Den Brink Am, Saxena Pr, Riegger Gaj, Schunkert H: Angiotensin converting enzyme in the human heart. Effect of the deletion/insertion polymorphism. Circulation 92: 1387–1388, 1995
[11]
So WY, Ma RC, Ozaki R, Tong PC, Ng MC, Ho CS,Lam CW, Chow CC, Chan WB, Kong AP. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in type 2 diabetic patients: Interaction with ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism. Kidney International 2006; 69 (8): 1438-1443.
[12]
Salem AH, Batzer MA. High frequency of the D allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene in Arabic populations. BMC Res Notes 2009; 2 (99).
[13]
Luft FC. Molecular genetics of human hypertension. Journal Hypertension 1998; 16: 1871-1878.
[14]
Sipahi T, Budak M, Şen S, Ay A, Şener S. Association between ACE gene Insertion I/deletion D polymorphism and primary hypertension in Turkish patients of Trakya region. Biotechnology & Biotechnology Equepment. 2006; 20: 104-108.
[15]
Hsieh MC, Lin SR, Hsieh TJ, Hsu CH, Chen HC, Shin SJ, Tsai JH. Increased frequency of angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype in patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2000; 15(7): 1008-1013.
[16]
Mondry A, Loh M, Liu P, Zhu AL, Nagel M. Polymorphisms of the insertion/deletion ACE and M235T AGT genes and hypertension: surprising new findings and meta-analysis of data. BMC Nephrology 2005; 6 (1): 1.
[17]
Pamies Andreu E, Palmero Palmero C, Garcia Lozano R, Stiefel Garcia-Junco P, Miranda Guisado ML, Martin Sanz V, Villar Ortiz J, et al. The effect of the angiotensinogen M235T and the angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphisms on arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. Medicina Clínica 1999; 113(5): 164-168.
[18]
Dzida G, Sobstyl J, Puzniak A, Golon P, Mosiewicz J, Hanzlik J. Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor type 1 genes in essential hypertension in a Polish population. Medical Science Monitor 2001; 7 (6): 1236-1241.
[19]
Woo SW, Bang S, Chung MW, Jin SK, Kim YS, Lee SH: Lack of association between ACE and bradykinin B2 receptor gene polymorphisms and ACE inhibitor-induced coughing in hypertensive Koreans. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2009, 34 (5): 561–7.
[20]
He Q, Fan C, Yu M, Wallar G, Zhang ZF, Wang L, Zhang X, Hu R: Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population. PLoS One 2013, 8 (10): e75870.
[21]
Zivko M, Kusec R, Galesić K: Impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism on proteinuria and arterial hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum 2013, 37: 765–770.
[22]
Zarouk W, Hussein I, Esmaeil N, Raslan H, Reheim H, Moguib O, Emara N, Aly A, Hamed M. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme gene (I/D) polymorphism with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Bratisl Lek Listy 2012; 113 (1): 14-18.
[23]
Choudhury I, Jothimalar R, Patra A K. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Hypertension in South Indian Population. Indian Journal Clinical Biochemistry 2012; 27(3): 265–269.
[24]
ZhouY, Yan H, Hou XP, MiaoJL, Zhang J, Yin QX, Li JJ, Zhang XY, Li YY, Luo HL. Association study of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism with elderly diabetic hypertension and lipids levels. Lipids in Health and Disease 2013; (12): 187-190.
[25]
Higaki J., Baba S., Katsuya T., Sato N, Ishikawa K, Mannami T, Ogata J, Ogihara T “Deletion allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene increases risk of essential hypertension in Japanese men: the Suita study,” Circulation 2000; 101 (17): 2060–2065.
[26]
Bhavani BA, Padma T, Sastry BKS, Krishna-Reddy N, Nausheen K. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE gene increase the susceptibility to hypertension and/or diabetes. International Journal of Human Genetics 2005; 5: 247 – 252.
[27]
Gunes HV, Ata N, Degirmenci I, Basaran A, Timuralp B, Dikmen M, Ustuner C, Kudaiberdieva G. Frequency of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in Turkish hypertensive patients. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2004; 58 (9): 838–843.
[28]
Saab YB, Gard PR, Overall AD. The geographic distribution of the ACE II genotype: a novel finding. Genetics Research Journal 2007; 89: 259-267.
[29]
Ono K, Mannami T, Baba S, Yasui N, Ogihara T and Iwai N. Lack of association between angiotensin II type 1 recep¬tor gene polymorphisms and hypertension in Japanese. Hypertension Research 2003; 26: 131–134.
[30]
Saab YB, Gard PR and Overall ADJ. The association of hypertension with renin–angiotensin system gene polymorphisms in the Lebanese population. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin- Aldosterone System 2011; 12 (4): 588-94.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186