Antimicrobial Activity of Donkey Milk against Dermatomycotic Fungi and Foodborne Bacteria
International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume 4, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 11-17
Received: Oct. 2, 2016; Accepted: Oct. 11, 2016; Published: Nov. 3, 2016
Views 3003      Downloads 131
Mostafa Koutb, Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Manal Khider, Department of Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
Esam H. Ali, Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Nemmat A. Hussein, Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
The antimicrobial activity of donkey milk was examined against 3 bacterial and 3 fungal strains selected on the basis of their relevance as human pathogens. All samples of donkey milk exhibited antimicrobial activity against dermatomycotic fungi and foodborne pathogen bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity was recorded against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum with minimal lethal concentration of 32 mg/ml. In respect to foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Gram- positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were more sensitive to donkey milk than Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) with minimal lethal concentrations of 32, 64 and 128 mg/ml respectively. Donkey milk kept about 60 to 62% of its antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and S. aurous respectively, after digestion with pepsin (2 mg/ml), suggesting that the fatty acids of donkey milk has the highest antimicrobial effect. While the antimicrobial activity against dermatomycotic fungi and Gram-negative bacteria not affected after digestion with pepsin. To explain the antifungal capability of donkey milk against dermatomycotic fungi, fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fatty acids analysis indicated that the major constituents in donkey milk lipid are oleic (25.4%), palmitic (23.75%), linolenic (20.04%), arachidic (3.58%) and stearic (3.26%), which have antimicrobial activity. Finally, on the basis of results obtained in the current study, the antimicrobial activity of donkey milk against Staphylococcus aureus and dermatomycotic fungi, specially T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum which frequently cause acute or chronic inflammatory tinea corporis; may be considered as a valuable natural product with novel functional protection properties in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
Donkey Milk, Trichophyton Mentagrophytes, Fatty Acids, Bacteria, Dermatomycotic Fungi
To cite this article
Mostafa Koutb, Manal Khider, Esam H. Ali, Nemmat A. Hussein, Antimicrobial Activity of Donkey Milk against Dermatomycotic Fungi and Foodborne Bacteria, International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 11-17. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbmr.20160403.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Tafaro A, Magrone T, Jirillo F, Martemucci G, D’Alessandro AG, Amati L, Jirillo E. Immunological properties of donkey’s milk: its potential use in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Curr Pharm Des 2007;13:3711–3717.
Weitzman I, Summerbell RC. The Dermatophytes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1995;8(2):240-259.
Vincenzetti S, Polidori P, Mariani P, Cammertoni N, Fantuz F, Vita A. Donkey’s milk protein fractions characterization. Food Chemistry 2008;106:640–649.
Saríc LC, Saríc BM, Mandíc AI, Torbica AM, Tomi LM, Cvetkovi DD. Antibacterial properties of Domestic Balkan donkeys’ milk. International Dairy J 2012;25:142-146.
Zhang XY, Zhao L, Jiang L, Dong ML, Ren FZ. The antimicrobial activity of donkey milk and its microflora changes during storage. Food Control 2008;19:1191–1195.
Benkerroum N, Mekkaoui M, Bennani N, Hidane K. Antimicrobial activity of camel’s milk against pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. International Journal of Dairy Technology 2004;57:39–43.
Benkendorff K, Davis AR, Rogers CN, Bremner JB. Free fatty acids and sterols in the benthic spawn of aquatic mollusks and their associated antimicrobial properties. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 2005;316:29-44.
Farrington M, Brenwald N, Haines D. Resistance to desiccation and skin fatty acids in outbreak strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol 1992;36:56-60.
Zheng CJ, Yoo JS, Lee TG. Fatty acid synthesis is a target for antibacterial activity of unsaturated fatty acids. FEBS Lett 2005;579:5157-5162.
Chiofalo B, Salimei E, Chiofalo L. Acidi grassi nel latte d.asina: proprietà bionutrizionali ed extranutrizionali. Large Animal Review 2003;6:21-26.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Washington, DC, USA 2000.
Kosikowski FV. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods. (2nd ed.), F.V. Kosikowski and Associates, Brooktondale, New York, USA, 1982; pp. 329-333.
David F, Sandra P, Vickers AK. Column selection for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters. Agilent Technologies August 30, 5989- 3760EN 2005.
Thammasirirak S, Pukcothanung Y, Preecharram S, Daduang S, Patramanon R, Fukamizo T, Araki T. Antimicrobial peptides derived from goose egg white lysozyme. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 2010;15:84–91.
Torres A, Garedew A, Schmolz E, Lamprecht I. Calorimetric investigation of the antimicrobial action and insight into the chemical properties of “angelita” honey- a product of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula from Colombia. Thermochim Acta 2004;415:107-113.
Elbanna K, Attalla K, Elbadry M, Abdeltawab A, Gamal-Eldin H, Ramadan M. Impact of floral sources and processing on the antimicrobial activities of different unifloral honeys. Asian Pacific J of Tropical Disease 2014;4(3):194-200.
Jobran ELR, Finegold SM. Diagonative Microbiology. 9th ed. part 2 pp: 168-188. Mosby Saint Louis, USA 1994.
Assiri A, Elbanna K, Al-Thubiani A, Ramadan M. Cold-pressed oregano (Origanum vulgare) oil: a rich source of bioactive lipids with novel antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Eur Food Res Technol 2016;242:1013–1023.
Zhang H, Zhang L, Peng1 L, Dong X, Wu D, Wu VC, Feng F. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol) 2012;13(2):83-93.
Tidona F, Sekse C, Criscione A, Jacobsen M, Bordonaro S, Marletta D, Vegarud GE. Antimicrobial effect of donkeys’ milk digested in vitro with human gastrointestinal enzymes. International Dairy J 2011;21:158-165.
Guo HY, Pang K, Zhang XY, Zhao L, Chen SW, Dong ML. Composition, physiochemical properties, nitrogen fraction distribution, and amino acid profile of donkey milk. J of Dairy Science 2007;90:1635–1643.
Jollès P, Jollès J. What's new in lysozyme research? Always a model system, today as yesterday. Mol Cell Biochem 1984;63(2):165-189.
Cunningham L, Bowles NE, Archard LC. Persistent virus infection of muscle in postviral fatigue syndrome. Br Med Bull 1991;47:852–871.
Banks JG, Board RG, Sparks NH. Natural antimicrobial systems and their potential in food preservation of the future. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 1986;8:103–147.
Gastaldi D, Bertino E, Monti G, Baro C, Fabris C, Lezo A. Donkey’s milk detailed lipid composition. Frontiers in Bioscience 2010;E2:537-546.
Martemucci G, D’Alessandro AG. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition. Lipids in Health and Disease 2012;11(113):1-14.
Chiofalo B, Azzara V, Venticinque L, Piccolo D, Chiofalo L. Variations of fatty acids in Ragusana ass.s milk during lactation. 55th Annual Meeting of the EAAP, September 5th-9th, 2004, Bled, Slovenia. 2004;Session:H4.16.
Agoramoorthy G, Chandrasekaran M, Venkatesalu V, Hsu M.J. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of fatty acids methyl esters of the Blind-your-eye Mangrove from India. Brazilian J of Microbiol 2007;38:739-742.
Choi JS, Park NH, Hwang SY, Sohn JK, Kwak I, Cho KK, Choi IS. The antibacterial activity of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against several oral pathogens. J of Environmental Biology 2013;34:673-676.
Park SE, Yoo HS, Jin CY. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity in human lung carcinoma cells by the water extract of Cordyceps militaris. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47(7):1667–1675.
Uniacke-Lowe T. Studies on equine milk and comparative studies on equine and bovine milk systems. PhD thesis. Cork: University College Cork 2011.
Salamon RV, Salamon Sz, Csapó-Kiss ZS, Csapó J. Composition of mare’s colostrums and milk. I. Fat content, fatty acid composition and vitamin contents. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria 2009;2:119-131.
Walters D, Raynor L, Mitchell A, Walker R, Walker K. Antifungal activities of four fatty acids against plant pathogenic fungi. Mycopathol 2004;157(1):87-90.
Kabara JJ, Swieczkowski DM, Conley AJ, Truant JP. Fatty Acids and Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1972;2(1):23-28.
Salimei E, Fantuz F. Equid milk for human consumption. International Dairy J 2012;24:130-142.
Desbois AP, Lawlor KC. Antibacterial Activity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids against Proionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus. Mar Drugs 2013;11(11):4544-4557.
Andrew P, Desbois AP, Lawlor KC. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus. Mar. Drugs 2013;11:4544-4557.
Isaacs CE, Litou RE, Thormar H. Antimicrobial activity of lipids added to human milk, infant formula, and bovine milk. J Nutr Chem 1995;6:362-366.
Saríc LC, Saríc BM, Kravić SZ, Plavšić DV, Milovanović ILJ, Gubić JM, Nedeljković NM. Antibacterial activity of Domestic Balkan donkey milk toward Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcus aureus. Food and Feed Research 2014;41(1):47-54.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186