Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2-Aminopyridine
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 127-134
Received: Oct. 17, 2015;
Accepted: Nov. 6, 2015;
Published: Dec. 21, 2015
Views 11458 Downloads 93
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2-Aminopyridine is an important compound, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The present work was aimed to assess the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral characteristics of 2-AP. The work was accomplished by dividing the sample in two parts i.e. one part was remained untreated, and another part had received biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the samples were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, ultra violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed a decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (91.80 nm) as compared to the control sample (97.99 nm). Additionally, the result showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The DSC and Differential thermal analysis analysis showed an increase in melting temperature of the treated 2-AP with respect to the control. Moreover, the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 3.08%. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (Tonset), and maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2-AP as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the treated sample showed a reduction in weight loss as compared with the control indicating higher thermal stability of the sample. UV-visible analysis showed no changes in the absorption peak of the treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic results showed downward shifting of C-H stretching vibration 2991→2955 cm-1 in treated sample with respect to the control.
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi,
Rakesh Kumar Mishra,
Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2-Aminopyridine, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 127-134.
Solari A, Uitdehaag B, Giuliani G, Pucci E, Taus C (2003) Aminopyridines for symptomatic treatment in multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD001330.
Korenke AR, Rivey MP, Allington DR (2008) Sustained-release fampridine for symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ann Pharmacother 42: 1458-1465.
New Drugs: Fampridine. Australian Prescriber (34): 119-123. August 2011.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Aminopyridine (Accessed on 12 October 2015).
Brayfield A (2014) "Piroxicam". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK.
TGA Approved Terminology for Medicines, Section 1, Chemical Substances" (PDF). Therapeutic Goods Administration, Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government. July 1999.
Gonzalez Cabrera D, Douelle F, Younis Y, Feng TS, Le Manach C, et al. (2012) Structure activity relationship studies of orally active antimalarial 3,5- substituted 2-aminopyridines. J Med Chem 55: 11022-11030.
Younis Y, Douelle F, Feng TS, Gonzalez Cabrera D, Le Manach C, et al. (2012) 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridines as a novel class of orally active antimalarials demonstrating single dose cure in mice and clinical candidate potential. J Med Chem 55: 3479-3487.
Younis Y, Douelle F, Gonzalez Cabrera D, Le Manach C, Nchinda AT, et al. (2013) Structure activity- relationship studies around the 2-amino group and pyridine core of antimalarial 3,5-diarylaminopyridines lead to a novel series of pyrazine analogues with oral in vivo activity. J Med Chem 56: 8860-8871.
Dambuza N, Smith P, Evans A, Taylor D, Chibale K, et al. (2015) A pharmacokinetic study of antimalarial 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridine derivatives. Malar Res Treat 2015: 5 Article ID 405962.
Samadi A, Marco-Contelles J, Soriano E, Alvarez-Perez M, Chioua M, et al. (2010) Multipotent drugs with cholinergic and neuroprotective properties for the treatment of Alzheimer and neuronal vascular diseases. I. Synthesis, biological assessment, and molecular modeling of simple and readily available 2-aminopyridine-, and 2-chloropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles. Bioorg Med Chem 18: 5861-5872.
Singh S, Bakshi M (2000) Guidance on conduct of stress test to determine inherent stability of drugs. Pharm Technol Online 24-36.
Kommanaboyina B, Rhodes CT (1999) Trends in stability testing, with emphasis on stability during distribution and storage. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 25: 857-868.
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi A, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Biofield treatment: A potential strategy for modification of physical and thermal properties of indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J 6: 98.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Influence of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126.
http://www.red-spirit-energy-healing.com/human-biofield.html (Accessed on 4th September 2015).
Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL (2004) Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Semin Integr Med 2: 54-71
Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and biotypic characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An impact of biofield treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7: 202-205.
Namazu T, Takemoto H, Inoue S (2010) Tensile and creep characteristics of sputtered gold tin eutectic solder film evaluated by XRD tensile testing. Sensor Mater 22: 13-24.
Ohira T, Yamamoto O (2012) Correlation between antibacterial activity and crystallite size on ceramics. Chem Eng Sci 68: 355-361.
Bergman L, Nemanich RJ (1995) Raman and photoluminescence analysis of stress state and impurity distribution in diamond thin films. J Appl Phys 78: 6709-6719.
Windischmann H, Epps GF, Cong Y, Collins RW (1991) Intrinsic stress in diamond films prepared by microwave plasma CVD. J Appl Phys 69: 2231.
Schafer L, Jiang X, Klages CP (1991) Applications of diamond and related materials. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Schwarzbach D, Haubner R, Lux B (1994) Internal stresses in CVD diamond layers. Diamond Relat Mater 3: 757-764.
Stolk RL, Buijnsters JG, Schermer JJ, Teofilov N, Sauer R, et al. (2003) The effect of nitrogen addition during flame deposition of diamond as studied by solid-state techniques. Diamond Relat Mater 12: 1322-1334.
Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Webb CJ, Gray EM, et al. (2014) Mg2Si nanoparticle synthesis for high pressure hydrogenation. J Phys Chem C 118: 1240-1247.
Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Saunders M, Buckley CE (2014) Mechanochemical synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles. R Soc Chem Adv 4: 21979-21983.
Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Pistidda, C, Dornheim M, et al. (2015) Reaction kinetic behaviour with relation to crystallite/grain size dependency in the Mg–Si–H system. Acta Mater 95: 244-253.
Kumar S, Tsai CJ, Nussinov R (2000) Factors enhancing protein thermostability. Protein Eng 13: 179-191.
Haney P, Konisky J, Koretke KK, Luthey Schulten Z, Wolynes PG et al. (1997) Structural basis for thermostability and identification of potential active site residues for adenylate kinases from the archaeal genus Methanococcus. Proteins 28: 117-130.
Russel RJ, Ferguson JM, Haugh DW, Danson MJ, Taylor GL (1997) The crystal structure of citrate synthase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon pyrococcus furiosus at 1.9 A resolution. Biochemistry 36: 9983-9994.
Salminen T, Teplyakov A, Kankare J, Cooperman BS, Lahti R, et al. (1996) An unusual route to thermostability disclosed by the comparison of Thermus thermophilus and Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatases. Protein Sci 5: 1014-1025.
Zhao J, Song P, Cui Y, Liu X, Sun S, et al. (2014) Effects of hydrogen bond on 2-aminopyridine and its derivatives complexes in methanol solvent. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 131: 282-287.
Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS (2001) Introduction to spectroscopy. (3rdedn), Thomson Learning, Singapore.
Khan TA, Rather MA, Jahan N, Varkey SP, Shakir M (1997) Synthesis and characterization of bis(Macrocyclic) complexes based on the 13-membered pentaaza unit. Synth React Inorg Met Org Chem 27: 843-854.
Mashaly MM, Abd-Elwahab ZH, Faheim AA (2004) Preparation, spectral characterization and antimicrobial activities of schiff base complexes derived from 4-aminoantipyrine. Mixed ligand complexes with 2-aminopyridine, 8-hydroxyquinoline and oxalic acid and their pyrolytical products. J Chin Chem Soc 51: 901-915.