Cloud Point Extraction of Carbendazim Pesticide in Foods and Environmental Matrices Prior to Visible Spectrophotometric Determination
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 30-41
Received: Apr. 13, 2016;
Accepted: Apr. 22, 2016;
Published: May 23, 2016
Views 3736 Downloads 165
Zuhair A-A Khammas, Department of Chemistry, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Jadiyriah, Baghdad, Iraq
Suher Salah Ahmad, Department of Chemistry, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Jadiyriah, Baghdad, Iraq
Two simple eco-friendly methods are described for nano-determination of carbendazim (MBC) pesticide in real samples. These methods are based on oxidation of MBC pesticide with Fe (III) ions in acidic medium. The formed Fe(II) ions reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form blue colored product (method A) which can easily be extracted into nonionic surfactant solution of Triton X-114 at cloud point temperature (CPT) of 55°C and MBC determined spectrophotometrically at absorption maximum of 685 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 2.07x104 L mol-1 cm-1. The Method B is based on the reaction of the formed Fe (II) with 2, 2’-bipyridyl to form a stable orange colored complex which can also be extracted by Triton X-114 at the same CPT and MBC determined spectrophotometrically at absorption maximum of 521 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 1.83x104 L mol-1 cm-1. Optimization of the experimental parameters was described and interferences study also examined. Under the optimum conditions established, the calibration graphs for MBC were linear in the range of 0.5-13 and 1-20 ng mL-1, giving the detection limits of 0.46 and 0.49 ng mL-1 with enrichment factors of 85.7 and 38.9 fold for method A and B respectively. The average percent recoveries in the real spiked samples were (97.86±1.06%) and (98.66±0.93%), giving a precision in terms of %RSD in the range of 1.25-2.97% and 0.37-1.42% for method A and B respectively. The proposed methods were applied to the determination of MBC in vegetables, orange, and water samples.
Zuhair A-A Khammas,
Suher Salah Ahmad,
Cloud Point Extraction of Carbendazim Pesticide in Foods and Environmental Matrices Prior to Visible Spectrophotometric Determination, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2016, pp. 30-41.
Venetian A, Vacca, G, Arana S, De Simone F and L. Rastrelli (2004) Determination of carbendazim, thiabendazole and thiophanate-methyl in banana (Musa acuminata) samples imported to Italy. Food Chem 87: 383-386.
Tomlin C Ed. (1994) The Pesticide Manual, 10th ed. British Crop Protection Council and Royal Society of Chemistry, U.K., p. 149-50.
Mazo LH, Coutinho CF, Galli A. and Machado SAS (2006) Carbendazim EO meio ambiente: degradação e toxidez. Pesticidas (UFPR), v. 16, p. 63-70.
Olayemi OA (2015). Comparative toxicity of two different pesticides on the skin of Japanese quail (Cortunix japonica). World Vet J 5: 13-18.
European Communities; Council Directive 98/83/EC on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption L 330/32; Official Journal of the European Communities: Brussels, December (1998).
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA); Drinking Water Contaminants; U.S. Agency for International Development: Washington D.C. May (2009).
Codex Alimentarius Commission. Pesticides residue in food. Joint FAO/ WHO Food Standard Programme of United Nations. Vol. 2, 2nd ed. Rome. (1993).
GB 14870-1994: Maximum Residue Limits of Carbendazim in Foods; Standardization Administration of China (SAC), General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China: Beijing (1994).
ANVISA, Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, Public Consultation No. 113 of December 19th, (2007).
Bushway RJ, Hurst HL, Kagabalasooriar J, and Perkins LB (1991) Determination of carbendazim in blueberries by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 587: 321-24.
Regis-rolle SD and Bauville GM (1993) High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of carbendazim residues in crops, grains, and wines with fluorescent detection. Pestic Sci 37: 273-82.
Phansawan B, Prapamonto T, Thavornyutikarn P, Chantara S, Mangklabruks A and C. Santasup C (2015) A Sensitive method for determination of carbendazim residue in vegetable samples using HPLC-UV and its application in health risk assessment. Chiang Mai J Sci 42: 681-690.
Thomas DH, Lopez-Avila V, Betowski LD and Van Emon J (1996) Determination of carbendazim in water by high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array or mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 724: 207–217.
Vega BA, Frenich GA and Vidal MLJ (2005) Monitaring of pesticides in agricultural water, soil samples from Andalusia by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Anal Chim. Acta 538: 117-127.
Cheng P, Tang HM, Yang SX and L. Wang L (2009) Determination of carbendazim residue in tomato and cucumber by HPLC-MS-MS. Modern Agrochemicals 3: 36-37.
Steinwandter H (1985) Chemical derivatization in residue analysis in gas chromatographic determination of carbendazim after alkylation with diazomethane and diazoethane. Fresenius' Z Anal Chem 321: 599-600.
Subhani Q, Huang Z. Zhu Z. and Zhu Y (2013) Simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and carbendazim in water samples by ion chromatography with fluorescence detector and post-column photochemical reactor. Talanta 116: 127–132.
Ashrafi AM, Đorđević J, Guzsvány V, Švancara I, Trtić-Petrović T, Purenović M and Vytřas K (2012) Trace determination of carbendazim fungicide using adsorptive stripping voltammetry with a carbon paste electrode containing tricresyl phosphate. Int J Electrochem Sci 7: 9717–9731.
Manisankar P, Selvanathan G and Vedhió C (2005) Utilisation of polypyrrole modified electrode for the determination of pesticides. Int J Environ Anal Chem 85: 409-422.
Li Jand Chi Y (2009) Determination of carbendazim with multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polymeric methyl red film modified electrode. Pesticide Biochem Physiol 93: 101-104.
Ribeiro WF, Selva TMG, Lopes IC, Coelho ECS, Lemos SG, de Abreu FC, do Nascimento VB and de Araujo MCU (2011) Electroanalytical determination of carbendazim by square waveadsorptive stripping voltammetry with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode. Anal Methods 3: 1202-1206.
Itak JA, Selisker MY, Jourdan SW, Fleeker JR and Herzogt DP (1993) Determination of benomyl (as carbendazim) and carbendazim in water, soil, and fruit juice by a magnetic particle-based immunoassay. J Agric Food Chem 41: 2329-2332.
Zhu HS, Wu LH, Li RB, Xia LA, Han JQ, Zhang QJ, Bian YC and Yu QR (2008) Determination of pesticides in honey using excitation – emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second – order calibration and second – order addition methods. Anal Chim Acta 619: 165-172.
Naidu KP, Niranjan T and Naidu VS (2011) Spectrophotometric determination of carbendazim in its formulations and environmental samples. Intern J ChemTech Res 3: 1728-1733.
Wu YS and Lee HK (1997) Determination of carbendazim residues in grains by solid-phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr Sci 35: 513-518.
Ebaisat H (2011) Determination of some benzimidazole fungicides in tomato puree by high performance liquid chromatography with SampliQ polymer SCX solid phase extraction. Arab J Chem 4: 115-117.
Kong HX, Yun H and Qiu NX (2007) Determination of carbendazim residue in apple juice concentrate by high performance liquid chromatography with solid-phase extraction. Chin J Anal Lab 26: 65-67.
Michel M and Buszewski B (2004) Optimization of a matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the determination analysis of carbendazim residue in plant material. J Chromatogr B 800: 309-314.
Hu Y Yang X, Wang Z, Wang C and Zhao J (2005) Determination of carbendazim and thiabendazole intomatoes by solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Chin J Chromatogr 23: 581-584.
Wu Q, Li Y, Wang C, Liu Z, Zang Z, Zhou X and Wang Z (2009) Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of carbendazim and thiabendazole in environmental samples. Anal Chim Acta 638: 139-145.
Pourreza N, Rastegarzadeh S and Larki A (2015) Determination of fungicide carbendazim in water and soil samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and microvolume UV-Vis spectrometry. Talanta 134: 24-29.
Asensio-Ramos M, Hernández-Borges J, Borges-Miquel, TM and Rodríguez-Delgado A (2011) Ionic liquid-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and metabolites in soils using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A 1218: 4808–4816.
Zhou ZM, Chen JB, Zhao DY and Yang MM (2009) Determination of four carbamate pesticides in corn by Ccoud point extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography in the visible region based on their derivatization reaction. J Agr Food Chem 57: 8722–8727.
Tang T, Qian K, Shi T, Wang F, Li J, and Cao Y (2010) Determination of triazolefungicides in environmental water samples by high performance liquidchromatography with cloud point extraction using polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate. Anal Chim Acta 80: 26–31.
Chen JB, Zhao WJ, Liu W, Zhou ZM and Yang MM (2009) Cloud point extraction coupled with derivative of carbofuran as a preconcentration step prior to HPLC.Food Chem 115: 1038–1041.
Melchert WR and Rocha FRP (2009) Cloud point extraction and concentration of carbaryl from natural waters. Intern J Environ Anal Chem 89: 969–979.
Khammas ZAA and Ahmad SS. (2016) Micelle-mediating extraction combined with visible spectrophotometry for the determination of ultra trace amounts of bendiocarb insecticide in various matrices after oxidative coupling with O-Toluidine. Int Res J Pure Appl Chem 10: 1-16.
Schenck FJ and Hobbs JE (2004) Evaluation of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) approach to pesticide residue analysis. Bull Environ Contamint and Toxicol 73: 24–30.
Theis TL and Singer PC (1973) the stabilization of ferrous iron by organic compounds in natural water, In P. C. Singer [ed.], Trace metals and metal-organic interactions in natural waters. Ann Arbor Sci. p. 303-320.
Theis TL and Singer PC (1973) Complexation of iron (II) by organic matter and its effect on iron (II) oxygenation. Enviro. Sci Technol 8: 569-573.
Stumm W and Lee GF. (1960) The chemistry of aqueous iron. Schweiz Z Hydrol 22: 295-319.
Mohammed AA, Talaat E, Mohamed, Y and Shama SA (2012) Application of oxidants to the spectrophotometric microdetermination of meclizine HCl in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Prime J Microbiol Res 2: 137-140.