Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 90-97
Received: Apr. 4, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 22, 2017;
Published: Nov. 14, 2017
Views 2519 Downloads 99
Fevzi Kilicel, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey
Hacer Sibel Karapinar, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey
Aysel Cimen, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey
In this study, a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) method after post-column derivatisation was applied for the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) in 45 samples (dried apricots, raisins, dried figs, nuts, peanuts, almonds, corn, redpepper, blackpepper, bread and moldy cheese). Samples were collected four seasons from several open market places in Karaman/Turkey and checked for AFs levels. At the same time bread samples were incubated for seven day outdoors. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the time required to reach the critical aflatoxin amounts in the bread that we consumed in our home. AFs were present in 75% of dried apricots (6/8), 100% of raisins (8/8), 100% of dried figs (8/8), 75% of nuts (6/8), 50% of peanuts (4/8), 50% of almonds (4/8), 100% of corn (8/8), 100% of blackpepper (8/8), 100% of redpepper (8/8), 78.5% of bread (11/14), 75% of moldy cheese (3/4) at total AF levels ranging. Eight redpepper samples were above the European maximum tolerable limit (MTL) of 8 µg kg-1 for AFB1, while total AFs concentration exceeded the MTL of 10 µg kg-1 in eight redpepper samples. The amount of aflatoxin in other samples is lower than the value of European MLT.
Hacer Sibel Karapinar,
Quantitation of Aflatoxins in Food Materials Using HPLC-FLD Method, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2017, pp. 90-97.
Sweeney, M. J., Dobson, A. D. W., (1998). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 43:141-158.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), (2004). Opinion on the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to aflatoxin B1 as undesirable substance in animal feed. The EFSA Journal, 39: 1-27.
Eaton, D. L., Gallagher, E. P., (1994). Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 34: 135-172.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), (1993). Some naturally occurring substances, food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins (Vol. 56). Lyon France: World Health Organization.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), (2002). Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans (Vol. 82). Lyon France.
Ariño, A., Herrera, M., Estopañan, G., Rota, M. C., Carramiñana, J. J., Juan, T., (2009). Food Control, 20:811-814.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations), (2011). FAO statistical databases and data sets. http://www.faostat.fao.org/.
European Commission, (2006b). Commission regulation (EC) No: 401/2006 of 23 February 2006 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, L70: 12-34.
European Commission, (2010). Commission Regulation (EU) No: 165/2010 of 26 February 2006 amending Regulation (EC) No: 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards aflatoxins. Official Journal of the European Union, L50, 8-12.
Truckess, M. W., Stack, M. E., Nesheim, S., Page, S. W., Albert, R. H., Hansen, T. J., (1991). Journal of the Association of the Official Analytical Chemistry, 74: 81-88.
EURACHEM, (1998). The fitness for purpose of analytical methods. A laboratory guideto method validation and related topics. Middlesex, TW11 0LY, United Kingdom: EURACHEM Working Group.
Hepsag, F., Golge, O., Kabak, B., (2014). Food Control, 38:75-81.
Dreher, M. L., (2012). Nutrition Reviews, 70:234-240.
Ulca, P., Evcimen, M. K., Senyuva, H. Z., (2010). Food Additives and Contaminants, Part B 3: 120-125.
TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute), (2011). The summary of agricultural statistics. http://tuik.gov.tr.
Set, E., Erkmen, O., (2010). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48:2532-2537.
Codex Alimentarius Commission, (2002). Discussion paper on aflatoxins in pistachios. CX/FAC 02/22, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Basaran, P., Ozcan, M., (2009). Journal of Food Safety, 29:95-105.
Gurses, M., (2006). International Journal of Food Properties, 92: 395-399.
Kabak, B., Var, I., Dobson, A. D. W., (2006). Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:593-619.