Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 107-112
Received: Nov. 7, 2017;
Accepted: Nov. 20, 2017;
Published: Jan. 2, 2018
Views 896 Downloads 43
Mark Peter Odero, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Were Lincoln Munyendo, School of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, United States International University - Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
Ambrose Kipchumba Kiprop, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Several studies indicate that mesquitol exhibits significant free-radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties. This makes it a useful resource with potential for exploitation in both agro-food and pharmaceutical industries. The heartwood of the plant P. juliflora is noted to contain very high levels of the flavan-3-ol compound mesquitol. Previous studies showed that in non-tropical countries like the United States of America where they experience four seasons in a year, mesquitol shows varying seasonal abundance with the least abundant season being the winter period. Meanwhile limited data exists on its abundance trends in tropical arid and semiarid regions that only experience the dry and wet seasons in a year. Plants samples of two distinct age groups were collected during the dry and wet seasons and extracted serially via a soxhlet apparatus after which column chromatography was used to assist in the process of mesquitol isolation. Thin layer chromatography assisted in pooling of fractions with similar Rf values. The Rf values were compared to available literature to ascertain fractions that contained mesquitol. A HPLC-UV method was developed and validated illustrating high accuracy and precision for the quantification of the mesquitol content in different P. juliflora samples. On evaluation, mesquitol was found to be more abundant during the wet seasons reaching 642.893 μg/ml as compared to 181.245 μg/ml for dry seasons. This abundance could be attributed to chemo-seasonal dynamics that have been witnessed to affect biosynthesis and deposition of phyto-compounds in plants. The developed and validated HPLC method, illustrated satisfactory quantification of mesquitol at 3-6% of the crude extract. This paper presents useful information on seasonal abundance dynamics of mesquitol in the tropics as a basis for the resource valorization.
Mark Peter Odero,
Were Lincoln Munyendo,
Ambrose Kipchumba Kiprop,
Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoid Mesquitol in the Medicinal Plant Prosopis juliflora with Seasonal Variations in Marigat, Baringo County-Kenya, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2017, pp. 107-112.
Chang, S., Cheng S., Wang S. (2001). Antitermitic activity of essential oils and components from Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27 (4), 717- 724.
Rao, R. J., Tiwari, A. K., Kumar, U. S., Reddy, S. V, Ali, A. Z., Rao, J. M., (2003). Novel 3-O-Acyl Mesquitol Analogues as Free-Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors: Synthesis biological Evaluation and Structure–Activity Relationship, Science direct: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 13 (2003) 2777–2780.
Liu S, Huang H. 2014. Assessments of antioxidant effect of black tea extract and its rationals by erythrocyte haemolysis assay, plasma oxidation assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. J Funct Foods. 18:1095–1105.
Lee, J. H., Lee, J. Y., Kim, K. N. et al. 2003. Quantitative analysis of two major ﬂavonoid aglycones in acid hydrolyzed samples of Angelica keiskei by HPLC. – Food Sci. Biotech. 12: 415–418.
Azam, M. M., Tewari J. C., Singh Y., Roy M. M. (2011). Prosopis juliflora A rich Source of Antioxidant Product. Central Arid Zone Research.
Nieva-Echevarrıa B, Manzanos MJ, Goicoechea E, Guillen MD. 2015. 2, 6-Ditert-butyl-hydroxytoluene and its metabolites in foods. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety. 14:67–80.
Suresh, G., Tiwari, A. K., Radha, K. M, Kumar, D. A., Prasad, R. K., Ali, A. Z., Rao, R. R., (2012). New advanced glycation end-product inhibitors from Dichrostachys cinerea. Journal of Natural Medicines, 66:213-216 ISSN 1340-3443.
Vagiri M, Conner S, Stewart D, Andersson SC, Verrall S, Johansson E, Rumpunen K. 2015. Phenolic compounds in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves relative to leaf position and harvest date. Food Chem. 172:135–142.
Gouvea, D. R., Neto. L. G., Sakamoto, H. T., Lopes, P. N., Lopes, C. L. (2012) Seasonal variation of the major secondary metabolites present in the extract of eremanthus mattogrossensis less (asteraceae: vernonieae) leaves. Quim. Nova, Vol. 35, No. 11, 2139-2145.
Koleva II, Van Beek TA, Linssen JPH, De Groot A, Evstatieva L. N. (2002) Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal; 13:8-17.
Soni, U., Braar S., Guattam, V. (2015). Effects of seasonal variations on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research, Vol 6 (9):3654.
Nascimento, F., Faqueti, A., Wilhem, J. Wittkowski, C. Tomczak, F., Borges, S., Yunes, R., Franchi Jnr, G., Nowil, A., Filho, V., Machado, M., Freitaes, R. Maheiros., A (2014) Seasonal influence and cytotocicty of extracts, fractions and major compounds from Allamanda scatti, Brazilian journal of pharmacognosy 24:545-552.
Pendergrass, J. S., (1984). Non-carbohydrate organic compounds in mesquite heartwood. Master of Science Thesis, Texas Tech University.
ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline: Stability testing of New drug substances and products available 2003 Q1A (R2). Available: http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Quality/Q1A_R2/Step4 /Q1A_R2__ Guideline.pdf (Accessed September 2011).
Hossain, M. A., Khulood, A. S. R., Zawan, H. M., Afaf, M. W. Qasim, A. R. (2013). Study of total phenol. Flavonoid contents and phytochemical screening of avroius leaves extract of locally grown Thymus vulgaris. Asian Pac journ Trop biomed.
Sampaio B. L., Edrada-Ebel R. and Da Costa F. B. (2016). Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic pro file of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants Science Reports 6: 29265. doi:10.1038/srep29265.
Lelenguyah, G., Kabachi, S., Biwott, J. (2016). Pastoral ists’ perception on trends of various climatic, social and environmental variables in Baringo county, Kenya. Journal of ecological anthropology, Vol 18, Issue No. 1.
Haribal, M. and Renwick, J. A. A. 2001. Seasonal and population variation in ﬂavonoid and alliarinoside content of Alliaria petiolata. J. Chem. Ecol. 27: 1585–1594.