The Microbial Status and Physico-Chemical Pollutants Studies of Rivers Owan and Evbiobe in Edo State, Nigeria
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 57-64
Received: May 23, 2018; Accepted: Jun. 12, 2018; Published: Jul. 11, 2019
Views 168      Downloads 21
Oyakhilome Gloria Irenosen, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Ajiwe Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Akinola Olufemi Korede, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The areas of study are Rivers Owan and Evbiobe, which transverse respectively through Owan East and Owan West Local Government Areas of Edo State, Nigeria. Owan river is a washing zone for automobiles of all sorts on daily basis while a major market site is located behind Evbiobe river; thus exposing the rivers to high level of quality degradation and bacteriological pollution. The rivers serve as drinking water source and other domestic uses to the communities around the study areas. Water samples were collected at ten locations within Rivers Owan and Evbiobe over a period of twelve months, covering both dry and wet seasons. The water samples were analysed for water bacteriological and physico-chemical characteristics using methods prescribed by APHA (1998), Aiyesanmi (2008) and Oyakhilome et al. (2012). These rivers were highly polluted with bacteria load as observed in the results of the study when compared with their guideline values. The statistical analyses conducted on the physico-chemical parameters revealed high level of significant difference (p< 0.05) between wet and dry seasons’ values for all parameters except Total Suspended Solid and Chemical Oxygen Demand in Owan river. The pollution of the rivers could be attributed to influx through runoff of microorganisms from vegetation decay, municipal sewage, garbage, domestic and fecal waste into the rivers, especially during the wet season. This calls for a need in the periodic monitoring of the water bodies so as to prevent or minimize the pollution of these rivers in the future.
Microbial, Physico-Chemical, Variation, Rivers
To cite this article
Oyakhilome Gloria Irenosen, Ajiwe Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu, Akinola Olufemi Korede, The Microbial Status and Physico-Chemical Pollutants Studies of Rivers Owan and Evbiobe in Edo State, Nigeria, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 57-64. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20190702.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Adefemi, O. S.; Olaofe, O. and Asaolu, S. S. (2007). Seasonal Variation in Heavy metal Distribution in sediments of major Dams in Ekiti State. Pak. J. Nutr. 6 (6), 705–707.
Aiyesanmi, A. F., Ipinmoroti, K. O. and Adeeyinwo, C. E. (2006); Baseline water quality status of rivers within okitipupa southeast belt of the bituminous sands field of Nigeria. Nig. J. Sci. 40, 62-71.
Aiyesanmi, A. F., Oguntuase, A. A. and Idowu, G. A. (2010). Investigation on speciation and pollution index of heavy metals in river Ala sediment, Akure, Nigeria. Intern. J. Bio. Chem. Sci. 4 (6) 2348–2349.
Amoo I. A., Adebayo O. T. and Lateef A. J. (2005). Evaluation of heavy metals in Fishes, water and sediments of Lake Kainji, Nigeria. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environ. 3 (1): 209-212.
APHA (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Polition Control Federation, Washington, USA.
Asaolu, S. S. (2003). Determination of some heavy metals in Oreochromis niloticus, Clariasgariepinus and Synodontisspp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 45 (1) 17–19.
Dhana S. and Balamurugan R. M. (2017). Ecological sanitation relative efficiency of different composting materials and recovery of nutrient for ecosan toilet. International Journal of Environmental science. 6 (1): 1–2.
Dhanakumar, S., Murthy, K. R. and Mohanra, R. (2015). Phosphorous fractionation in surface sediments of the Cauvery Delta region, Southeast India. Environmental Management of River Basin. Pp 477-489.
DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry), (1996). South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition). Volume 6: Agricultural Water Use: aquaculture. pp 185.
Efe, S. I., Ogban, F. E., Horsfall, M. Jnr, Akporhonor, E. E. (2005) Seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics in water resources quality in Western Niger Delta region, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 9 (1) 191–195.
Engelking, P. (2003). Pollution. In: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Delux 2003, (c) 1993–2002. Microsoft Corporation.
EPA, (2001). Parameters of Water Quality: Interpretation and Standards. Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland. pp133.
EU, (2002). The Commission of the European Communities: Commission regulation, (EC) No 221/2002 amending regulation (EC) No. 446/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuff in order to rpotect public health. Official Journal of the European Communities 7. 2. 2002, L37/5–L37/6.
Health Canada (2006a) Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: Guideline Technical Document — Heterotrophic plate count. Water Quality and Health Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Health Canada (2006b) Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: Guideline Technical Document - Escherichia coli. Water Quality and Health Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
McKelvie I. D. (2004). In situ measurement of physicochemical water quality parameters. In (Burden, F. R., Donnert, D., Godish, T. and McKelvie, I. D. Editors) Environmental Monitoring Handbook. McGraw-Hill pp3. 1–3. 21.
Najafpour, S.; Alkarkhi, A. F. M.; Kadir, M. O. A.; Najafpour, G. D., (2008). Evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in river water quality. Int. J. Environ. Res., 2 (4), 349-358.
Obasohan E. E. (2008). The use of heavy metals load as an indicator of the suitability of the water and fish of Ibiekuma stream for domestic and consumption purposes. Bioscience Research Communications, 20: 265-270.
Oronsaye, J. A. O.; Wangboje, O. M. and Oguzie, F. A. (2010) Trace metals in some benthic fishes of the Ikpobariver dam, Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 8860-8864.
Oyakhilome, G. I; Aiyesanmi, A. F. and Akharaiye F. C. (2012). Water Quality Assessment of the Owena Multi-Purpose Dam, Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Journ. Envir. Protect., 3 (1), pp14-25.
Oyakhilome G. I.; Adefemi S. O.; Aiyesanmi A. F. and Asaolu S. S. (2013). Inter-relationship of heavy metals concentration in water, sediment and fish samples from Owena Multi-Purpose Dam, Ondo State, Southern Nigeria. Journ. Emerging Trend in Eng. And App. Sc. (JETEAS). 4 (2): 207-215.
Oyakhilome G. I.; Adefemi S. O.; Asaolu S. S.; Akinola O. K. (2014). Investigation of some Quality Parameters in Groundwater from Afuze, Edo State, Nigeria. Inter. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Protection. Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 62-67.
Öztürk, M., Özözen, G., Minareci, O. and Minareci, E. (2009). Determination of heavy metals in fish, water and sediments of avsar dam lake in turkey. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 6: 73-80.
Pejman, A. H.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Mehrdadi, N.; Esmaeili Bidhendi, M., (2009). Evaluation of spatial and seasonal variations in surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology., 6 (3): 467-476.
Roesner, L. A. and Bledsoe, B. P.: 2003, ‘Physical Effects ofWetWeather Flows on Aquatic Habitats: Present Knowledge and Research Needs’, Water Environment Research Foundation Technical Report # 00-WSM-4. Alexandria, VA., pp. 1-197.
Simpson, J. M., Domingo, J. W. S. and Reasoner, D. J.: (2002) ‘Microbial source tracking: State of the science’, Environmental Science and Technology 36, 5279–5288.
Stein, E., Ackerman, D. and Schiff, K.: 2003, ‘Watershed-based Sources of Contaminants to San Pedro Bay and Marina del Rey: Patterns and Trends’, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #413, Westminster, CA, pp 1-33.
USEPA (2009). “Drinking water standards and health advisories,” EPA 822-R-09-011, Office of Water, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington.
Vincent-Akpu, I. F., Tyler A. N., Wilson C., Mackinnon G. (2015). Assessment of physico-chemical properties and metal contents of water and sediments of Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry; 97: (2) 135-144.
WHO. (2008). Guidelines for drinking - water quality, 3rd Ed. World Health Organisation 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Pp 1-688.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186