Validation of the EcH2O Electron-Activated Reactor for Purifying Contaminated Water in Parkersburg (West Virginia)
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 80-88
Received: Nov. 16, 2015; Accepted: Nov. 29, 2015; Published: Dec. 16, 2015
Views 4060      Downloads 74
Stephen Opoku-Duah, Ohio Valley University Environmental Group, West Virginia, USA
Gordon Wells, Ohio Valley University Environmental Group, West Virginia, USA
Wycliff Kipkemoi, Ohio Valley University Environmental Group, West Virginia, USA
Ashley Wilcox, Ohio Valley University Environmental Group, West Virginia, USA
Dennis Johnson, EcH2O International, LLC, Eco-Sustainability Division, Colorado, USA
Mark Wiley, TCG Global, LLC, Colorado, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
This paper discusses validation of the EcH2O portable ‘batch-treatment’ electron-activated reactor field unit designed to purify contaminated water to make it safe and potable. The basic EcH2O system consists of a 90-gallon plastic reactor tank (trash can), ionized nitrogen-oxygen (NI-OXTM) vapor-ion plasma generator, and 1-micron electron separation (e-SEPTM) porous cartridge water filter. While the NI-OXTM generator applies UV radiation to activate and split ambient air into aggressive water treatment agents in the form of free electrons and charged dissolved vapor ions, the e-SEPTM cartridge is designed to absorb NI-OXTM treatment agents and solvated (free) electrons to induce filtration and rapid disinfection-kill of bacteria and other pathogens. The study started by creating a water quality database from contaminated surface water, EPA/West Virginia water quality standards, and Vienna City water. The EcH2O purifier was run 14 days/month from April-September 2014 and samples analyzed for chemical and bacteriological quality. When the results were matched against published data, EcH2O compared favorably with both EPA/West Virginia water quality standards and Vienna City water (R2 = 0.99; p<0.011; N = 13). The EcH2O purifier was found to be affordable and capable of delivering potable water to households in poor countries at about $0.27 per person per day with economic savings of nearly $7.00 at this rate.
Validation, EcH2O Reactor, Contaminated Water, Electro-Chemistry, EPA Water Quality Standards
To cite this article
Stephen Opoku-Duah, Gordon Wells, Wycliff Kipkemoi, Ashley Wilcox, Dennis Johnson, Mark Wiley, Validation of the EcH2O Electron-Activated Reactor for Purifying Contaminated Water in Parkersburg (West Virginia), American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 80-88. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20150306.12
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UNDP, Access to water in the Millennium Development Goals Report of 2013; United Nations Headquarters in New York, USA. UN online public domain reports (2004), (accessed 01/20/2014).
UNICEF, Wash and Women – MICS & DHS Surveys from 25 Sub-Saharan African Countries, Giacomo Pirozzi (Eds.) UNICEF Publ., HQ07-0641 New York, 2013, pp. 1-5.
WHO, Costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at the global level. Evaluation of the Millennium Development Goals - Water, Sanitation and Health, (accessed 06/11/2015).
WHO, Pathogenic mycobacteria in water: A guide to Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management, Assessing microbial safety of drinking water, S. Pedley, J. Bartram, G. Rees, A. Dufour, J. Cotruvo (Eds.), ISBN: 1 84339 059 0, IWA Publ., London, UK, 2004, Sections 1-3.
B. I. Dvorak, S. O. Skipton, Drinking water treatment: Overview, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Extension Division of Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lincoln, 2004, pp.1-11.
M.W. Le Chavallier, Control, treatment and disinfection of Mycobacteria avium complex in drinking water In: Pathogenic mycobacteria in water: A guide to Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management, Assessing microbial safety of drinking water: S. Pedley, J. Bartram, G. Rees, A. Dufour, J. Cotruvo (Eds.), J. ISBN: 1 84339 059 0, IWA Publ., London, UK, 2004, chapters 1&2.
I. Douterelo, J. B. Boxall, P. Deines, R. Sekar, K.E. Fish, C. A. Biggs, Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems, Water Res. 65 (2014) 134-156.
R. G. Nair, J. K. Roy, S. K. Samdarshi, A. K. Mukherjee, Enhanced visible photocatalytic disinfection of gram negative pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria with Ag/Ti (V) oxide nanoparticles, Colloids & Surfaces: Biointerfaces, 86 (2011) 7-13.
WHO, Assessing microbial safety of drinking water: Important approaches and methods, A. Dufour, M. Snozi, W. Koster, J. Bartram, E. Ronchi, L. Fewtrell, (Eds.) IWA, Publ., London, UK, (2003), chapters 2-3.
US/EPA, Analytical methods approved for drinking water compliance monitoring organic contaminants (2014). (accessed 08/05/2015).
G. M. Geise, H-S. Lee, J. D. Miller, B.D. Freeman, J. E. McGrath, R. D. Paul, Water purification membranes: The role of polymer science. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polymer Physics 48, 15 (2011) 1685-1718.
E. Ubomba-Jaswa, C. Navntoff, I. M. Polo-Lopez, P. Fernandez-Ibanez & K.G. McGuigan, Solar disinfection of drinking (SODIS): An investigation of the effect of UV-A dose inactivation efficiency, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8 (2009) 587-595.
M. Zhang, X. Xie, M. Tang, C. S. Criddle, Y. Cui, S.W. Wang, Magnetically ultraresponsive nanoscavengers for next-generation water purification systems Nature Communications Volume: 1 4 (2013) 1866 doi: 10.1038/ncomms2892.
MIT-NRL Technical Report, Water filtration and treatment performance at the MIT- Nuclear Reactor Laboratory; Activation Analysis, Coolant Chemistry, Nuclear Medicine and Reactor Engineering, MIT, Massachusetts, R. E. Block, (Eds.), 2013, pp.1-13.
Litton Aondale Navy Shipyard Report, Field scale demonstration of electrocoagulation and enhanced media filtration for treatment of shipyard storm water, M. E. Pulido, E. J. La Motta, R. M. Nandipati, J. C. Josse, (Eds.), 2001 pp. 16-33.
M. D. Kozar, K.J. McCoy, Geohydrology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Ohio River, alluvial aquifers near Point Pleasant, Lubeck, Parkersburg, Vienna, Moundsville and Glendale, West Virginia, USGS Technical Report, Reston, West Virginia, 2004, pp.1-38.
C. M. Tanner, F. Kamel, G. W. Ross, J. A. Hoppin, A. Goldman, M. Korell, C. Marras, G.S. Bhudhikanok, M. Kasten, A.R. Chade, K. Comyns, M.B. Richards, C. Meng, W. Langston, et al. Environ Health Perspect, 119, 6 (2011) 866–872. Published online Jan 26, 2011. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002839 PMCID: PMC3114824.
W. T. Foreman, D. L. Rose, D. B. Chambers, A. S. Crain, L. C. Murtagh, H. Thakellapalli, & K. K. Wang, Determination of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol isomers by heated purge-and-trap GC/MS in water samples from the 2014 Elk River, West Virginia, chemical spill, Chemosphere, 131 (2014) 217-224.
W. E. Luttrell, 4-Methylcyclohexane methanol (MCHM), J. Chem. Health & Safety 22, 1 (2015) 39-41.
P. C. Vandevivere, R. Bianchi, W. Verstraete, Review: Treatment and reuse of wastewater from the textile wet-processing industry: Review of emerging technologies, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 72 (1998) 289–302. doi: 10.1002/ (SICI) 1097-4660(199808) 72: 4<289: AID-JCTB905>3.0.CO; 2-#.
M. Long, W. D. Henkels, H. Baseman, FDA's New Process Validation Guidance: Industry Reaction, Questions, and Challenges, Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol. 35, 2011, pp. 4-6.
WHO, Guidelines for drinking water quality, Vol. I&II, 2e, IWA, Publ. London, UK, 1993, variously paged.
D. W. Kolpin, E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, E.M. Thurman, S. D. Zaugg, L. B. Barber, &H. T. Buxton, Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999−2000:  A National Reconnaissance, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 6 (2002) 1202–1211; DOI: 10.1021/es011055j.
US/EPA, Water quality standards (2014) (accessed 02/13/ 2014).
US/EPA, Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastewaters, Environmental Monitoring and Support Lab, EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1983, pp. 18-28.
US/EPA, Methods for the determination of organic compounds in drinking water, Supplement III, EPA/600/R-95/131; EPA Office for Research and Development, Washington DC; (1995) (accessed 06/16/2015).
W. Q. Betancourt, J. B. Rose, Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, Veterinary Parasitology, 126, 1-2 (2004) 219-234.
J. P. Calabrese, G. K. Bissonnette, Improved membrane filtration method incorporated with catalase and sodium pyruvate for detection of chlorine-stressed coliform bacteria, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 11 (1990) 3558-3564.
M. Cheesbrough, District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2, 2ed. Cambridge University, 2006, pp. 149-154.
I. Chorus, J. Bartram, Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A Guide to their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management. E & FN Spon, London and New York, 1999, pp.18-23.
D. Kumar, S. Malik, M. Madan, A. Pandey, & A. K. Asthana, Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water by MPN Method in a Tertiary Care Hospital and Adjoining Area Western Up, India, IOSR J. Environ. Sci., Toxicol. & Food Techn., 4, 3 (2013) 17-22.
R. R. Datta, M. S. Hossain, M. Aktaruzzaman, A. N .M. Fakhruddin, Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from tubewell water in coastal area of Sitakunda, Chittangong, Bangladesh, Open J. Water Poll. Treatment, 1, 1 (2014) 1-10.
Vienna City Council Drinking water quality monitoring data, City of Vienna, West Virginia, USA, Techn. Report 2014, 2014, pp.1-5.
D. Johnson, EcH2O Process Vapor-ion Enhanced H2O Mobile Drinking Water Purification System. Brochure on EcH2O system designs and drawings – 2013, pp.1-34.
T-P. Pham Thuy, C-W. Cho, Y-S. Yun, Environmental fate and toxicity of ionic liquids: A review (Review) Water Research, 44 (2010) 352-372.
B. Langlais, D. A. Reckhow, D. R. Brink, Ozone in Water Treatment, Appli. & Eng. Chelsea, MI, Lewis Publishers, Inc. 1991, pp.22-64.
R. L. Wolfe, M. H. Stewart, K.N Scott, M.J. McGuire, Inactivation of Giardia muris and indicator organisms seeded in surface water supplies by peroxone and ozone, Environ. Sci. & Technol. 23 (1989) 744–745.
J. Taylor, D. Thompson, J. Carswell, Applying Membrane Processes to Groundwater Sources for Trihalomethane Precursor Control, Journal AWWA, Aug 1987, 72.
S. Yoo, W. Carmichael, R. Hoehn, S. Hrudey, Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins: A resource guide. Denver, CO, American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 1995, pp. 218-229.
G. G. Wickramamayake, A. J. Rubin & O. J. Sproul, Inactivation of Naegleria and Giardia cysts in water by ozonation, J. Water Poll. Control Fed. 56 (1984) 983–988.
The Water Project Poverty and Water in Africa, The Water Project – An international Non-Governmental Organization, 2015, (accessed 06/01/2015).
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186