Adsorption of Reactive Blue Dye onto Natural and Modified Wheat Straw
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 9-15
Received: Jan. 5, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 17, 2016; Published: Jan. 29, 2016
Views 3663      Downloads 111
Khalid Mokhlif Mousa, Department of Chemical Engineering, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
Alaa Hussein Taha, Department of Chemical Engineering, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
Conventional treatment of textile wastewater such as biological treatment discharges will no longer be tolerated and identified as non-biodegradable. Advanced processes such as adsorption and advanced oxidation hold great promise to provide alternative for better treatment and protection of environment. In this study, adsorption process is carried out for both batch (kinetic and isotherm) studies using natural wheat straw (NWS) as low cost adsorbent, modified wheat straw (MWS) and Activated Carbon (AC) for comparing the results. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted on a shaker at 200 rpm, room temperature using 250 mL conical flasks contains 100 mL of dye solution to study the effects of adsorption conditions. The effect of pH was determined by adjusting pH values (2.5 – 10.5). To study the effect of initial dye concentration, six different concentrations of reactive blue dye (5, 20, 30, 50, 70 and 90) mg/L were prepared and used. Results showed that the removal percent using NWS, MWS and AC are; 68%, 92.17% and 90.5% respectively. Equilibrium isotherm experiment were carried at different dosages (0.1 – 1 g) to predict the isotherm model; Langmuir, Freundlich and BET. The experimental data showed that reactive blue is fitted with Freundlich isotherm (1/n = 1.25, 0.67) for both (NWS) and (MWS) respectively, and for (AC) is fitted with Langmuir isotherm. Three kinetic models, were selected to fit the kinetic data; pseudo first, second order and intra-particle diffusion, reactive blue is fitted with intra-particle diffusion model with (NWS) and (MWS), and Pseudo second order for (AC).
Adsorption, Modified Wheat Straw, Reactive Blue Dye
To cite this article
Khalid Mokhlif Mousa, Alaa Hussein Taha, Adsorption of Reactive Blue Dye onto Natural and Modified Wheat Straw, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp. 9-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20160401.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
F. M. D. Chequer, D. P. de Oliveira, E. R. A. Ferraz et al., Textile dyes: dyeing process and environmental impact: INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2013.
W. Chu, “Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 3147-3152, 2001.
R. Ansari, B. Seyghali, A. Mohammad-Khah et al., “Highly efficient adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using sawdust modified by cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 557-565, 2012.
M. M. Ula, and W. A. Latif, “Fixed bed adsorption for wastewater treatment,” Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 2012.
G. Crini, “Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review,” Bioresource technology, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 1061-1085, 2006.
L. Soldatkina, and M. Zavrichko, “Application of agriculture waste as biosorbents for dye removal from aqueous solutions,” Хімія, фізика та технологія поверхні, no. 4, № 1, pp. 99-104, 2013.
L. D. Fiorentin, D. E. Trigueros, A. N. Módenes et al., “Biosorption of reactive blue 5G dye onto drying orange bagasse in batch system: Kinetic and equilibrium modeling,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 68-77, 2010.
T. Robinson, B. Chandran, and P. Nigam, “Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw,” Water research, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2824-2830, 2002.
J. Singh, N. Mishra, S. Banerjee et al., “Comparative studies of physical characteristics of raw and modified sawdust for their use as adsorbents for removal of acid dye,” BioResources, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 2732-2743, 2011.
G. Z. Kyzas, J. Fu, and K. A. Matis, “The change from past to future for adsorbent materials in treatment of dyeing wastewaters,” Materials, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 5131-5158, 2013.
C. Ng, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall et al., “Freundlich adsorption isotherms of agricultural by-product-based powdered activated carbons in a geosmin–water system,” Bioresource technology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 131-135, 2002.
J. R. Baseri, P. Palanisamy, and P. Sivakumar, “Adsorption of reactive dye by a novel activated carbon prepared from Thevetia peruviana,” Int J Chem Res, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 36-41, 2012.
W. M. Abood, “Removal of three textile reactive dyes (Blue, Red and Yellow) by Activated carbon and Low-Cost Adsorbents,” University of Baghdad, 2012.
T. Madrakian, A. Afkhami, and M. Ahmadi, “Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 99, pp. 102-109, 2012.
N. Özbay, A. Yargıç, R. Yarbay-Şahin et al., “Full factorial experimental design analysis of reactive dye removal by carbon adsorption,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2013, 2013.
B. Manu, and S. Chaudhari, “Decolorization of indigo and azo dyes in semicontinuous reactors with long hydraulic retention time,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1213-1221, 2003.
Y. Su, Y. Jiao, C. Dou et al., “Biosorption of methyl orange from aqueous solutions using cationic surfactant-modified wheat straw in batch mode,” Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 52, no. 31-33, pp. 6145-6155, 2014.
B. Zhao, W. Xiao, Y. Shang et al., “Adsorption of light green anionic dye using cationic surfactant-modified peanut husk in batch mode,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2014.
A. E. Pirbazari, E. Saberikhah, and S. H. Kozani, “Fe 3 O 4–wheat straw: preparation, characterization and its application for methylene blue adsorption,” Water Resources and Industry, vol. 7, pp. 23-37, 2014.
S. T. Akar, A. Gorgulu, T. Akar et al., “Decolorization of Reactive Blue 49 contaminated solutions by Capsicum annuum seeds: Batch and continuous mode biosorption applications,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 125-133, 2011.
O. Aksakal, and H. Ucun, “Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 666-672, 2010.
A. Adamu, “Adsorptive removal of reactive azo dyes using industrial residue,” Addis Ababa University, 2008.
K. Bharathi, and S. Ramesh, “Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review,” Applied Water Science, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 773-790, 2013.
M. T. Yagub, T. K. Sen, S. Afroze et al., “Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review,” Advances in colloid and interface science, vol. 209, pp. 172-184, 2014.
F. Batzias, and D. Sidiras, “Dye adsorption by prehydrolysed beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1208-1217, 2007.
F.-C. Wu, R.-L. Tseng, and R.-S. Juang, “Kinetic modeling of liquid-phase adsorption of reactive dyes and metal ions on chitosan,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 613-618, 2001.
B. Hameed, “Spent tea leaves: A new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 753-759, 2009.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186