An Alternative Arrangement for the Alum Sludge Management: Minimising Waste with Low-Cost Solar Techniques
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 30-37
Received: Jan. 22, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 30, 2016; Published: Mar. 31, 2016
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Maha A. Tony, Basic Engineering Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minoufiya University, Minoufiya, Shebin Elkoum, Egypt; Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence, Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, UK
Aghareed M. Tayeb, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, EL-Minia University, EL-Minia, Egypt
Yaqian Zhao, UCD Dooge Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University College Dublin, Newstead, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
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Alum sludge produced from the drinking water treatment plants was used to investigate the improvement capabilities in its dewatering properties. The sludge was passed through a laboratory solar still towards reducing the sludge volume during the dewatering process. A number of parameters describing the distillate and the sludge were measured at the end of each experiment in order to determine the process behaviour under conditions of relatively high solar radiation which is reached to 1014 W/m2 and temperature levels which reaches inside the still to a maximum of 87°C. Conventional chemical conditioners in augmentation with the solar dewatering such as polyelectrolyte, and advanced conditioner like photo-Fenton’s reagent were used in the sludge conditioning studies. Experimental results indicated that 10 mg/L of anionic polyelectrolyte conditioner enhance the dewateraibility in the terms of SRF reduction to 97%. However, it reached to 78% when the Fenton’s reagent is added. It is realized that dewatering is accelerated when the polymer is added compared to that of Fenton’s reagent conditioning; Fenton’s reagent offers a more environmentally safe option. Moreover, the volume of distillate collected is nearly a double fold increase in the case of the conditioning with the Fenton’s reagent rather than that for the organic polymer. In addition, the turbidity of the supernatant are: 3.4, 2.7 and 247 NTU for polyelectrolyte, Fenton’s reagent treatment and for the raw sludge, respectively. Furthermore, the optimum influencing variables of Fenton’s reagent is evaluated by applying Box-Behnken experimental design based on the response surface methodology (RSM), i.e. Fe2+, H2O2 and pH are 50 mg/L, 600 mg/l and 8.5, respectively.
Alum Sludge, Dewatering and Conditioning, Fenton’s Reagent, Organic Polymers, Solar Still, RSM
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Maha A. Tony, Aghareed M. Tayeb, Yaqian Zhao, An Alternative Arrangement for the Alum Sludge Management: Minimising Waste with Low-Cost Solar Techniques, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 30-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20160402.11
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