Transesterification and Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil: Effect of Operation Variables on Fuel Properties
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 154-160
Received: Nov. 17, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 1, 2016; Published: Jan. 5, 2017
Views 4551      Downloads 246
Falah Fahed Banihani, Department of Chemical Engineering, Al-Huson University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Huson, Jordan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Biodiesel is proved to be the best replacement for diesel because of its unique properties like low toxicity, no sulfur emissions, no particulate matter pollutants, significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and biodegradability. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalysis gives high levels of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times. It is prepared from waste vegetable oils and animal fats by trans-esterification process. It is alkali catalyzed reaction which involves waste cooking oil, methanol, and potassium hydroxide. The study focus on the physical and chemical properties of waste cooking oil (WCO), transesterification and production of biodiesel from WCO. The operation variables used were methanol/oil molar ratio (5:1-9:1), catalyst concentration (0.5-2.0 wt%), temperature (30-70°C). The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by its density, viscosity, high heating value, cetane index, cloud and pour points, characteristics of distillation, flash and combustion points, saponification value, and iodine value according to ISO norms. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst (1%), and 60°C temperature. This biodiesel had properties very similar to those of no. 2 diesel.
Trans-Esterification, Biodiesel, Alternative Fuel, Fuel Properties, Waste Oil
To cite this article
Falah Fahed Banihani, Transesterification and Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil: Effect of Operation Variables on Fuel Properties, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 154-160. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20160406.13
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anh N. Phan, Tan M. Phan, Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils, Fuel vol. 87, 2008, pp. 3490–3496.
Jose M. Encinar, et al., Biodiesel from Used Frying Oil. Variables Affecting the Yields and Characteristics of the Biodiesel, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Vol. 44, 2005, pp. 5491-5499.
Srivastava A., Prasad R., Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renewable Sustainable Energy Re. vol. 4, 2000, pp. 111.
Utlu Z., Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuel Obtained from Waste Cooking Oil, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects vol. 29, No14, 2007, pp. 1295-1304.
Mohammed Abdul Raqeeb and Bhargavi R., Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 7, No. 12, 2015, pp. 670-681.
A. Javidialesaadi. S. Raeissi, Biodiesel Production from High Free Fatty Acid-Content Oils: Experimental Investigation of the Pretreatment Step; APCBEEP rocedia vol. 5, 2013, pp. 474–478.
Shirley J. et al., Effect of Temperature and Particle Size on the Yield of Bio-oil, Produced from Conventional Coconut Core Pyrolysis, International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. o7, No2, 2016, pp. 102-108.
María Jesús Ramos, et al., Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, 2009, pp. 261–268.
Huseyin Sanli, Mustafa Canakci, Ertan Alptekin, Characterization of Waste Frying Oils Obtained from Different Facilities. World renobyl energy, Sweden, 8-13 mart., 2011.
F. Jalala, S. Paneer selvamband, L. R. Miranda, Fatty methyl ester from vegetable oils for use as adiesel fuel International Journal of Renewable Energy Resources vol. 1, 2011, pp. 32-36.
Zaibunnisa Hussain, Saeed Ahmad Nagra, Mehwish Jamil, Production of Biodiesel from Waste Canola Cooking Oil in Pakistan, International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 6, No 6, 2015, pp. 55-61.
Murchana Pathak1, et al. (2015). Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil vol. 5, No 5, 2015, pp. 60-64.
R. B. Sharma, Dr. Amit P. J. Sharaf, Production of bio-diesel from waste cooking oil Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications vol. 3, No 6, 2013, pp. 1629-1636.
Cetinkaya M, Karaosmanoglu F., Optimisation of base-catalysed transesterification reaction of used cooking oil, Energy Fuels vol. 18, 2004, pp. 1888–95.
Encinar JM, Gonzalez JF, Rodriguez-Reinares A., Biodiesel from used frying oil: Variables affecting the yields and characteristics of the biodiesel. Ind Eng Chem Res. Vol. 4, 2005, pp. 5491–9.
George A, Ypatia Z, Stamoulis S. and Stamatis K., Transesterification of vegetable oil with ethanol and characterization of the key fuel properties of ethyl esters. Energies vol. 2, 2009, pp. 362-376.
Zhu H, et al., Preparation of biodiesel catalyzed by solid super base of calcium oxide and its refining process. Chin. J. Catal. vol. 27, 2006, pp. 391-396.
Hiba Abdalla Mahgoub, et al. Suitable Condition of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil–Al-Baha City – KSA, International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, ISSN: 2321-3124 Available at:
Azhari Muhammad Syam, et al., Waste Frying Oils-Based Biodiesel: Process and Fuel Properties, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy vol. 4, 2013, pp. 281-286.
Mathiyazhagan M, Ganapathi A, Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production, Research in Plant Biology: Review, Article vol. 1, No (2), 2011, pp. 01-05.
Anitha A., Dawn S., Performance Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Waste Groundnut Oil using Supported Heteropolyacids. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 1, No (3), 2010, pp. 261-265.
Alemayehu Gashaw1, Abile Teshita, Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil and factors affecting its formation: A Review, International Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy; vol. 3, No (5), 2014, pp: 92-98.
K. Dhanasekaran, M. Dharmendirakumar, Optimization study of biodiesel used frying oil Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. vol. 3, No (2), 2014, pp: 727-735l.
Tahereh Hajy Heidar, 1and Kambiz Tahvildari, Efficient Synthesis of Biodiesel From Waste Cooking Oil Catalysed by Al2O3 Impregnated with NaOH, Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering vol. 49, No (2), 2015, pp. 143-151.
A. Hossain, A. Boyce, Biodiesel production from waste sunflower cooking oil as environmental recycling process and renewable energy. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science vol. 15, No (4), 2009, pp. 312-317.
Lakshmana Naik R, et al. Optimized Parameters for Production of Biodiesel from Fried Oil. International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology vol. 2, No 6, 2015, pp. 23.
Zlatica J. Predojevic, The production of biodiesel from waste frying oils: A comparison of different purification steps, Fuel vol. 87, 2008, pp. 3522–3528.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186