Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Magnesium Gluconate
Magnesium gluconate is usually used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as well as to maintain the overall quality of life. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -73.55% to 17.21% and from -14.28% to 125.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 19.29% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) of the treated sample was significantly increased by 2.03%, 70.92%, 142.25%, and 95.42%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of treated sample was significantly decreased by 21.34% compared to the control sample. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (170.16°C) was decreased by 0.19% compared the control sample (170.48°C). The latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was increased by 3.11% compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis exhibited three steps thermal degradation and the total weight loss of the treated sample was increased by 0.29% compared to the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperatures (Tmax) of the 1st and 2nd peaks were decreased by 2.86% and 1.97%, respectively, while 2nd and 3rd peaks were increased by 1.14% and 0.94% respectively, in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The thermal analysis revealed that the thermodynamic stability of the treated sample was changed compared with the control sample. The Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a crystalline polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could show better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the untreated sample. Hence, Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be advantageous in designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, cancer, diabetes mellitus, stress, aging, etc.
Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Magnesium Gluconate, American Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2017, pp. 64-73.
Heaton FW (1990) Role of magnesium in enzyme systems in metal ions in biological systems, In: Sigel H, Sigel A (Eds.), Volume 26: Compendium on magnesium and its role in biology, nutrition and physiology, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Frick DN, Banik S, Rypma RS (2007) Role of divalent metal cations in ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase: Magnesium provides a bridge for ATP to fuel unwinding. J Mol Biol 365: 1017-1032.
Garfinkel L, Garfinkel D (1985) Magnesium regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the enzymes involved. Magnesium 4: 60-72.
Fleming TE, Mansmann Jr HC (1999) Methods and compositions for the prevention and treatment of immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases and infections. United States Patent 5939394, 1-11.
Fleming TE, Mansmann Jr HC (1999) Methods and compositions for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. United States Patent 5871769, 1-10.
Guerrera MP, Volpe SL, Mao JJ (2009) Therapeutic uses of magnesium. Am Fam Physician 80: 157-162.
Gums JG (2004) Magnesium in cardiovascular and other disorders. Am J Health Syst Pharm 61: 1569-1576.
Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K (2015) Magnesium in prevention and therapy. Nutrients 7: 8199-8226.
Weglicki WB (2000) Intravenous magnesium gluconate for treatment of conditions caused by excessive oxidative stress due to free radical distribution. United States Patent 6100297, 1-6.
Clague JE, Edwards RH, Jackson MJ (1992) Intravenous magnesium loading in chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 340: 124-125.
Martin RW, Martin JN Jr, Pryor JA, Gaddy DK, Wiser WL, Morrison JC (1988) Comparison of oral ritodrine and magnesium gluconate for ambulatory tocolysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158: 1440-1445.
Turner RJ, Dasilva KW, O'Connor C, van den Heuvel C, Vink R (2004) Magnesium gluconate offers no more protection than magnesium sulphate following diffuse trau-matic braininjury in rats. J Am Coll Nutr 23: 541S-544S.
Lee KH, Chung SH, Song JH, Yoon JS, Lee J, Jung MJ, Kim JH (2013) Cosmetic compositions for skin-tightening and method of skin-tightening using the same. United States Patent 8580741 B2.
Coudray C, Rambeau M, Feillet-Coudray C, Gueux E, Tressol JC, Mazur A, Rayssiguier Y (2005) Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res 18: 215-223.
Stenger VJ (1999) Bioenergetic fields. Sci Rev Alternative Med 3.
Warber SL, Cornelio D, Straughn J, Kile G (2004) Biofield energy healing from the inside. J Altern Complement Med 10: 1107-1113.
Rubik B (2002) The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717.
Koithan M (2009) Introducing complementary and alternative therapies. J Nurse Pract 5: 18-20.
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of physical and structural properties of biofield energy treated barium calcium tungsten oxide. Advances in Materials 4: 95-100.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Impact of biofield treatment on atomic and structural characteristics of barium titanate powder. Ind Eng Manage 4: 166.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Characterization of physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of biofield energy treated p-phenylenediamine and p-toluidine. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5: 329.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Characterization of biofield energy treated 3-chloronitrobenzene: Physical, thermal, and spectroscopic studies. J Waste Resources 5: 183.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of biochemical marker - glutathione and DNA fingerprinting of biofield energy treated Oryza sativa. American Journal of BioScience 3: 243-248.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Morphological characterization, quality, yield and DNA fingerprinting of biofield energy treated alphonso mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 3: 245-250.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of biofield modality on viral load of Hepatitis B and C viruses. J Antivir Antiretrovir 7: 083-088.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) In vitro evaluation of antifungal sensitivity assay of biofield energy treated fungi. Fungal Genom Biol 5: 125.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic characterization of biofield treated salicylic acid and sparfloxacin. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 186.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Spectroscopic characterization of disulfiram and nicotinic acid after biofield treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265.
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Mishra RK, Jana S (2015) Physicochemical characterization of biofield energy treated calcium carbonate powder. American Journal of Health Research 3: 368-375.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of phenotyping and genotyping characteristic of Shigella sonnei after biofield treatment. J Biotechnol Biomater 5: 196.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Bacterial identification using 16S rDNA gene sequencing and antibiogram analysis on biofield treated Pseudomonas fluorescens. Clin Med Biochemistry Open Access 1: 101.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Characterization of phenotype and genotype of biofield treated Enterobacter aerogenes. Transl Med 5: 155.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Phenotyping and genotyping characterization of Proteus vulgaris after biofield treatment. International Journal of Genetics and Genomics 3: 66-73.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) The potential impact of biofield treatment on human brain tumor cells: A time-lapse video microscopy. J Integr Oncol 4: 141.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Plikerd WD, Surguy PL, Kock RJ, Piedad RB, Callas RP, Ansari SA, Barrett SL, Friedman S, Christie SL, Chen Liu S-M, Starling SE, Jones S, Allen SM, Wasmus SK, Benczik TA, Slade TC, Orban T, Vannes VL, Schlosser VM, Albino YSY, Panda P, Sethi KK, Jana S (2017). A systematic study of the biofield energy healing treatment on physicochemical, thermal, structural, and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate. International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. 2: 135-145.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Wellborn BD, Smith DL, Koster DA, Patric E, Singh J, Vagt KS, Callas KJ, Panda P, Sethi KK, Jana S (2017) Characterization of physicochemical, thermal, structural, and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate after treatment with the Energy of Consciousness. International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry 3: 1-12.
Langford JI, Wilson AJC (1978) Scherrer after sixty years: A survey and some new results in the determination of crystallite size. J Appl Cryst 11: 102-113.
Inoue M, Hirasawa I (2013) The relationship between crystal morphology and XRD peak intensity on CaSO4. 2H2O. J Crystal Growth 380: 169-175.
Raza K, Kumar P, Ratan S, Malik R, Arora S (2014) Polymorphism: The phenomenon affecting the performance of drugs. SOJ Pharm Pharm Sci 1: 10.
Brittain HG (2009) Polymorphism in pharmaceutical solids in Drugs and Pharmaceutical Sciences, volume 192, 2nd Edn, Informa Healthcare USA, Inc., New York.
Censi R, Martino PD (2015) Polymorph Impact on the Bioavailability and Stability of Poorly Soluble Drugs. Molecules 20: 18759-18776.
Chereson R (2009) Bioavailability, bioequivalence, and drug selection. In: Makoid CM, Vuchetich PJ, Banakar UV (Eds) Basic pharmacokinetics (1st Edn) Pharmaceutical Press, London.
Khadka P, Ro J, Kim H, Kim I, Kim JT, Kim H, Cho JM, Yun G, Lee J (2014) Pharmaceutical particle technologies: An approach to improve drug solubility, dissolution and bioavailability. Asian J Pharm Sci 9: 304-316.
Kale VV, Gadekar S, Ittadwar AM (2011) Particle size enlargement: Making and understanding of the behavior of powder (particle) system. Syst Rev Pharm 2: 79.
Podczeck F, Mia Y (1996) The influence of particle size and shape on the angle of internal friction and the flow factor of unlubricated and lubricated powders. Int J Pharm 144: 187-194.
Zhang M, Efremov MY, Schiettekatte F, Olson EA, Kwan AT, Lai SL, Wisleder T, Greene JE, Allen LH (2000) Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructures: Nanocalorimetric measurements. Phys Rev B 62: 10548.