Membrane fouling has been recognized as a serious barrier in microfiltration and ultrafiltration of secondary effluent. Feed pre-treatment is a frequent use for fouling extenuation. Numerous techniques have been employed to monitor membrane fouling. These include: Pre-treatment of the feedwater, modification of membrane properties, optimization of module configuration and operating conditions, periodic membrane cleaning, evaluation of system performance using pilot plant, and use of predictive models. However, membrane fouling remains complicated task for both technico-economic reasons depending on water characteristics and pre-treatment processes and efficiencies. The large majority of the membranes employed in water and wastewater treatment are produced of polymeric materials. Nevertheless, it has been expected that ceramic membranes will be competitive options in the following years.
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