Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Microalgae Using Microwave: Kinetic of Transesterification Reaction Using CaO Catalyst
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2018, Pages: 54-59
Received: Jul. 23, 2018; Accepted: Aug. 7, 2018; Published: Sep. 4, 2018
Views 722      Downloads 63
Herman Hindarso, Department of Chemical Engineering, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Surabaya, Indonesia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, is becoming prominent among alternatives to conventional petro-diesel due to economic, environmental and social factors. Transesterification is the most preferred method of biodiesel production. Knowledge of transesterification reaction kinetic enables prediction of the extent of the chemical reaction at any time under particular conditions. It is also essential in the design of reactors for biodiesel production in industrial scale, determination of kinetic model and optimization of operation conditions. In this study, a mathematical model for the microwave assisted trans-esterification reaction of microalgae and methanol has been developed to study the effect of the operating parameters on the process kinetics. A well-mixed microwave reactor was used to express the laboratory scale microwave reactor at stirring speed 500 rpm. Mass transfer controlled state was assumed to be minimal using the stirring condition. The model developed was based on experimental data described in a previous study. The experimental works were designed to study the effect of reaction time between 1-5 min; power of microwave of 100-400 W, and an amount of CaO catalyst of 1 and 3%. The use of a solid catalyst effectively reduces the purification cost of biodiesel due to ease of separation and potential for reuse. The molar ratio of microalgae oil and methanol was constant at the ratio of 1: 6. The validation of model indicated that the reaction have second order reaction in terms of triglycerides. A very good correlation between model and experiment data was observed by correlation coefficient (R2) and least square curve fit. In addition, the experiment shows that the best conditions for reaction time were 5 min, power of microwave was 400 W and amount of CaO catalyst was 3%. The maximum yield of biodiesel in the best conditions was 93.23%.
Microalgae, Biodiesel, Microwave Transesterification, Kinetics Model
To cite this article
Herman Hindarso, Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Microalgae Using Microwave: Kinetic of Transesterification Reaction Using CaO Catalyst, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp. 54-59. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20180604.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Almagrbi, A. M., Hatami, T., Glisic, S. B. and Orlovic, A. (2014). Determination of Kinetic Parameters for Complex Transesterification Reaction by Standard Optimisation Methods. Hemijska Industrija, 68(2), 149-159.
Amin, A., AboEl-Enin, S. S., El Diwani, G. and Hawash, S. (2015). Kinetic Model of Algal Biodiesel Production under Supercritical Methanolysis. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(1), 274-278.
Cancela, A., Maceiras, R., Urrejola, S. and Sanchez, A. (2012). Microwave-Assisted Transesterification of Macroalgae. Energies. 5, 862-871.
Orifici, L. I., Bhal, C. D., Gely, M. C., Bandoni, A. and Pagano, A. M. (2013). Modeling and Simulation of the Biodiesel Production in a Pilot Continuous Reactor. Mecanica Computational, 31, 1451-1461.
Patil, P, Gude, V. G., Pinappu, S and Deng, S. (2011). Transesterification Kinetics of Camelina sativa oil on metal oxide catalysts under conventional and microwave heating conditions. Chemical Engineering Journal. 168, 1296-1300.
Urrejola, S., Maceiras, R., Perez, L., Cancela, A. and Sanchez, A. (2012). Analysis of Macroalgae Oil Transesterification for Biodiesel Production. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 29, 1153-1158.
Koberg, M., Cohen, M., Amotz, A. B. and Gedanken, A. (2010). Bio- diesel Production Directly from the Microalgae Biomass of Nannochloropsis by Microwave and Ultrasound Radiation. Bioresource Technology. 102(5), 4265-4269.
Farag, H. A., El-Maghraby, A. and Taha, N. A. (2013). Kinetic Study of Vegetable Oil for Esterification and Transesterification Process of Biodiesel Production. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences. 3, 1-8.
Demirbas, A. (2011). Biodiesel from Oilgae, Biofixation of Carbon Dioxide by Microalgae: A Solution to Pollution Problems. Applied Energy, 88(10), 3541-3547.
Chisti, Y. (2007). Biodiesel from Microalgae. Biotechnology Advances. 25(3), 294-306.
Siva, S. and Marimuthu, C. (2014). Production of Biodiesel by Transesterification of Algae Oil with an Assistance of Nano-CaO Catalyst derived from Egg Shell. International Journal of ChemTech Research. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2112-2116.
Tran, N. H., Bartlett, J. R., Kannangara, G. S. K., Milev, A. S., Volk, H and Wilson, M. A., (2010). Catalytic Upgrading of Biorefinery Oil from Micro-algae. Fuel, 89, 265-274.
Hindarso, H., Aylianawati, A. and Sianto, M. E., (2015). Biodiesel Production From the Microalgae Nannochloropsis by Microwave Using CaO and MgO Catalysts. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 4(1), 72-76.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186