American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages: 43-50
Received: Mar. 11, 2019;
Published: Jun. 15, 2019
Views 215 Downloads 25
Wang Chengyun, The Testing and Technology Center for Industrial Products, Shenzhen Custom, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Zhang Weiya, The Testing and Technology Center for Industrial Products, Shenzhen Custom, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Yan Jie, The Testing and Technology Center for Industrial Products, Shenzhen Custom, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Lin Junfeng, Shenzhen Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Xie Tangtang, Shenzhen Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Yang Zuojun, Shenzhen Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Shenzhen, P. R. China
In recent years, the number of controlled fentanyl species has increased gradually, and up to now, the number of controlled fentanyl species increased to twenty-seven. Since fentanyl standards are difficult to obtain, there are only several kinds of controlled fentanyl species involved in the literature, and the analysis of all 27 controlled fentanyl species have not been reported in the literature. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish a method for the rapid screening and confirmation of all 27 controlled fentanyl species without the use of standards. In this paper, an analytical method for the rapid screening and confirmation of 27 controlled fentanyl substances without the use of standards was established. Suspected samples were rapidly screened by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC/Orbitrap HRMS). Qualitative identification was performed through the quasi-molecular ion accurate masses of target compounds. Confirmation was carried out by secondary ion segments. It is the first time that all of 27 controlled fentanyl substances was tested. The proposed method was simple, rapid and accurate, applicable for the rapid screening and confirmation of 27 controlled fentanyl substances without standards.
Confirmation and Analysis of Fentanyl and Its Analogues Without the Standards, American Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 43-50.
Liu Zhimin. Abuse and control of fentanyl and its derivatives: hazards and challenges [J]. Chinese Journal of Drug Dependence, 2017, 26 (4): 274-276.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. What are NPS [EB/OL]. https://www.unodc.org/LSS/Page/NPS, 2016-4-15.
World Health Organization, WHO model list of essential medicines. (2017) [online]. http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/, 2017-09-22
United States Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration. Diversion Control Division National Forensic Laboratory Information System, NFLIS Brief: Fentanyl, 2001-2015, 2017.
I. S. Lurie, A. C. Allen. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of fentanyl homologues and analogues [J]. Journal of Chromatography, 1984, 292: 283-294.
R. D. Maier, M. Bogusz. Identification power of a standardized HPLC-DAD system for systematic toxicological analysis [J]. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 1995, 19 (2): 79-83.
A. A. Almousa, R. Ikeda, M. Wada, et al. HPLC-UV method development for fentanyl determination in rat plasma and its application to elucidate pharmacokinetic behavior after i. p. administration to rats [J]. Journal of Chromato- graphy B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2011, 879 (27): 2941-2944.
T. Naito, Y. Takashina, T. Yagi, et al. Simple and rapid HPLC-UV method using an ultrafine particle octadecylsilane for determination of residual fentanyl in applied durotep MT transdermal matrix patches and its clinical application [J]. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2012, 60 (1): 56-61.
Y. Zhang, W. P. Xie. Evaluation of HPLC-DAD selectivity by discrimination power and mean list length for the identification of unknown drugs [J]. Chromatographia, 2014, 77 (23-24): 1613-1622.
H. Ohta, S. Suzuki, K. Ogasawara. Studies on fentanyl and related compounds IV. Chromatographic and spectrometric discrimination of fentanyl and its derivatives [J]. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 1999, 23: 280-285.
N. F. J. van Nimmen, H. A. F. Veulemans. Validated GC-MS analysis for the determination of residual fentanyl in applied durogesic reservoir durogesic D-trans matrix transdermal fentanyl patches [J]. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2007, 846 (1-2): 264-272.
P. Kiousi, Y. S. Angelis, E. Lyris, et al. Two-step silylation procedure for the unified analysis of 190 doping control substances in human urine samples by GC-MS [J]. Bioanalysis, 2009, 1 (7): 1209-1224.
B. A. Goldberger, C. W. Chronister, M. L. Merves. Quantitation of fentanyl in blood and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [J]. Methods in Molecular Biology, 2010, 603: 245-252.
F. Versace, F. Sporkert, P. Mangin, et al. Rapid sample pre-treatment prior to GC-MS and GC-MS/MS urinary toxicological screening [J]. Talanta, 2012, 101: 299-306.
H. Nair, F. Woo, A. N. Hoofnagle, et al. Clinical validation of a highly sensitive GC-MS platform for routine urine drug screening and real-time reporting of up to 212 drugs [J]. Journal of Toxicology, 2013, 329: 407.
Liu Xiaoyun, Luo Wenguang, Wang Jihua, et al. Study on the qualitative and quantitative analysis method of fentanyl and norfentanyl in human urine by SPE-GC-MS [J]. Chinese Journal of Drug Dependence, 2013, 22 (4): 271-275.
Qian Zhenhua, Li Peng, Zheng Hui, et al. Mass-fragmentation characteristics of fentanyl analogues [J]. Journal of Chinese Mass Spectrometry Society, 2018, 39 (5): 583-592.
M. K. Kioussi, E. M. Lyris, Y. S. Angelis, et al. A generic screening methodology for horse doping control by LC-TOF-MS, GC-HRMS and GC-MS [J]. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2013, 941: 69-80.
A. H. Wu, R. Gerona, P. Armenian, et al. Role of liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR/MS) in clinical toxicology [J]. Clinical Toxicology, 2012, 50: 733-742.
N. N. Stephanson, P. Signell, A. Helander, et al. Use of LC-HRMS in full scan-XIC mode for multi-analyte urine drug testing - a step towards a ‘black-box’ solution? [J]. Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 2017, 52: 497-506.
J. L. Manfio, V. J. Santos, V. L. Lanchote, et al Development and validation of an HPLC/MS/MS method for the determination of sufentanil and morphine in human plasma [J]. Journal of AOAC International, 2011, 94 (1): 136-42.
D. M. Bassan, F. Erdmann, R. Kruell. Quantitative determination of 43 common drugs and drugs of abuse in human serum by HPLC-MS/MS [J]. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, 400 (1): 43-50.
I. S. Lurie, A. L. Berrier, J. F. Casale, et al. Profiling of illicit fentanyl using UHPLC- MS/MS [J]. Forensic Science International, 2012, 220 (1-3): 191-196.
Y. P. Gaillar, A. C. Cuquel, A. Boucher, et al. A fatality following ingestion of the designer drug meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) in an asthmatic-HPLC-MS/MS detection in biofluids and hair [J]. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2013, 58 (1): 263-269.
D. Remane, D. Montenarh, M. R. Meyer, et al. Application of a UHPLC MS/MS-Based Multianalyte Approach for Screening and Validated Quantification of Drugs in Human Blood Plasma Often Requested in the Context of Brain Death Diagnosis [J]. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 2014, 36 (2): 257-260.
S. R. Bista, M. Lobb, A. Haywood, et al. Development, validation and application of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of fentanyl and nor-fentanyl in human plasma and saliva [J]. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2014, 960: 27-33.
M. E. Blanco, E. Encinas, O. Gonzalez, et al. Quantitative determination of fentanyl in newborn pig plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples by HPLC-MS/MS [J]. Drug Test Analysis, 2015, 7 (9): 804-811.
X. Wang, S. S. Johansen, M. K. K. Nielsen, et al. Targeted analysis of 116 drugs in hair by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to forensic cases [J]. Drug Test Analysis, 2017, 9 (8): 1137-1151.
Liu Wei, Xiong Xin, Zhang Xianhua, et al. HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of sufentanil in human plasma [J]. Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2017, 33 (9): 825-827.
K. E. Strayer, H. M. Antonides, M. P. Juhascik, et al. LC-MS/MS-based method for the multiplex detection of 24 fentanyl analogues and metabolites in whole blood at sub ng mL-1 concentrations [J]. ACS Omega, 2018, 3 (1): 514-523.
Kong Lingce，Zou Guomin, Liu Guangqiang，et al. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for trace fentanyl detection in water [J]. The Journal of Light Scattering, 2010，22 (1): 34-38.
F. Inscore, C. Shende, A. Sengupta, et al. Detection of drugs of abuse in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) [J]. Appl Spectrosc, 2011, 65 (9): 1004-1008.
P. W. Fedick, B. J. Bills, N. E. Manicke, et al. Forensic sampling and analysis from a single substrate: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy followed by paper spray mass spectrometry [J]. Analytical Chemistry (Washington DC, US), 2017, 89 (20): 10973-10979.
S. Broecker, F. Pragst, A. Bakdash, et al. Combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in systematic toxicological analysis [J]. Forensic Science International, 2011, 212 (1-3): 215-226.
J. A. Baz-Lomba, M. J. Reid, K. V. Thomas. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC- QTOF [J]. Analytical Chimica Acta, 2016, 914: 81-90.
J. Aszyk, A. Kot-Wasik. The use of HPLC-Q- TOF-MS for comprehensive screening of drugs and psychoactive substances in hair samples and several "legal highs" products [J]. Monatshefte fur Chemie, 2016, 147 (8): 1407-1414.
D. Chepyala, I. L. Tsai, H. W. Liao, et al. Sensitive screening of abused drugs in dried blood samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of- flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IB-QTOF-MS) [J]. Journal of Chromatography A, 2017, 1491: 57-66.
Wei Wanli, Dou Li, Zhang Shaoyu, et al. Qualitative and quantitative test of new psychoactive substance methacetin without standard [J]. Journal of People’s Public Security University of China (Science and Technology), 2017, (1): 20-26.
C. Noble, D. P. Weihe, J. S. Stybe, et al Application of a screening method for fentanyl and its analogues using UHPLC-QTOF-MS with data-independent acquisition (DIA) in MS (E) mode and retrospective analysis of authentic forensic blood samples [J]. Drug Test Analysis, 2018, 10 (4): 651-662.
E. Jagerdo, J. E. Schaff. Rapid screening for drugs of abuse in biological fluids by ultra high performance liquid chromatography /Orbitrap mass spectrometry [J]. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.05.010