Scrutiny of Injected Electron Current Polarization Effect on the Threshold Current Density Reduction in QW Spin-Lasers
American Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 16-22
Received: Mar. 5, 2014;
Accepted: Apr. 22, 2014;
Published: May 30, 2014
Views 3831 Downloads 119
S. N. Hosseinimotlagh, Department of Physics, Shiraz branch Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
H. Ghavidelfard, Department of Physics, Payam Noor University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
M. Pezeshkian, Department of Physics, Payam Noor University, Shiraz, Iran
H. Molaei, Department of Physics, Payam Noor University, Shiraz, Iran
One of the mechanisms for threshold current density reduction is using spin polarized carriers generated by electrical spin injection. Electrical spin injection is spin-polarized carrier injection by using a magnetic contact. In this paper, we have solved numerically rate equations governing on semiconductor spin un-polarized and polarized laser with - based quantum well active region in which Schottky tunnel barrier treat as the spin injector. For the first time, we demonstrate simultaneously effect of normalized spin relaxation rate and injected current polarization on threshold current density reduction related to two form of spontaneous recombination. According to our result threshold current density reduction increases by simultaneously normalized spin relaxation rate reduction and increasing of injected current polarization. Maximum obtained threshold current density reduction values for linear and quadratic spontaneous recombination is 0.07 and 0.31. Moreover, we compute and compare the effect of value of injected electron current polarization on normalized spin-filtering interval for two types of recombination. Maximum obtained normalized spin-filtering interval values for linear and quadratic spontaneous recombination is 1.2 and 1.36. Finally we calculate spin-up optical gain and from this we obtained the conditions for achieving optimum optical gain. Maximum obtained spin-up optical gain valueis17.36.
S. N. Hosseinimotlagh,
Scrutiny of Injected Electron Current Polarization Effect on the Threshold Current Density Reduction in QW Spin-Lasers, American Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 16-22.
S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices, 2nded. Wiley, New York, (2009).
M. A. Parker, Physics of Optoelectronics, CRC, New York, (2004).
L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, New York, (1995).
W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor Laser Fun-damentals: Physics of the Gain Materials Springer, NewYork, (1999).
H. Haken, Light, Vol. 2 Laser Light Dynamics North-Holland, New York, 1985.
Z. I. Alferov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 767 (2001).
V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, A. Yu. Egorov, and N. A.Maleev,Quantum Dot Lasers(Oxford University Press, New York, (2003).
D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov,Quanutm Dot Heterostructures, Wiley, New York, (1999).
A. Das, J. Heo, M. Jankowski, W. Guo, L. Zhang, H. Deng, and P. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 066405 (2011).
J. Rudolph, D. H¨agele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M.Oestreich, Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 4516 (2003.(
J. Rudolph, S. D¨ohrmann, D. H¨agele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 241117 (2005).
M. Holub, J. Shin, and P. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 146603 (2007).
S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081113 (2011).
M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, R. Winkler, and D. Hagele, Design considerations for semiconductor spin lasers, SuperlatticesMicrostruct. 37, 306–312 (2005).
C. Gothgen, R. Oszwałdowski, A. Petrou, and I. Žutić, Analytical model of spin-polarized semiconductor lasers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 042513 (2008).
J. Lee, W. Falls, R. Oszwałdowski, and I. Žutić, Spin modulation in semiconductor lasers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041116 (2010).
G. Schmidt, D. Ferrand, L. W. Molenkamp, A. T. Filip, and B. J. van Wees;“Fundamental obstacle for electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal into a diffusive semiconductor”; Phys. Rev. B62, R4790 (2000).
E. I. Rashba;“Theory of electrical spin injection: Tunnel contacts as a solution of the conductivity mismatch problem”; Phys. Rev. B62, R16267 (2000).
A. Fert and H. Jaffres;“Conditions for efficient spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal into a semiconductor”; Phys. Rev. B64, 184420 (2001).
R. A. de Groot, F. M. Mueller, P. G. v. Engen, and K. H. J. Buschow; “New class of materials: Half-metallic ferromagnets”;Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 2024 (1983).
J. Lee, R. Oszwałdowski, C. Gøthgen, and I. Žutić; “Mapping between quantum dot and quantum well lasers: From conventional to spin lasers”; Phys. Rev. B 85, 045314 (2012).
EEY. Tsymbal and I. Žutić; Handbook of Spin Transport and Magnetism, CRCPress. 731-745 (2012).
J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and . M. Oestreich, Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4516–4518 (2003).
J. Rudolph, S. Dohrmann, D. Hagele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized carriers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241117 (2005).
M. Holub, J. Shin, and P. Bhattacharya, Electrical spin injection and threshold reduction in a semiconductor laser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 146603 (2007).
D. Basu, D. Saha, and P. Bhattacharya, Optical polarization modulation and gain anisotropy in an electrically injected spin laser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093904 (2009).
R. Oszwałdowski, C. Gøthgen, and I. Žutić, Theory of quantum dot spin-lasers, Phys. Rev. B82, 085316 (2010).