Hypothetical Formulation to Propel Pico-molecular Medicinal Dust: Application to Total Elevation of Therapeutic Efficiency Compare to Nano Entity
Ongoing through all the applications of nano medicines through various sources, it has been understand that preparation of polymeric nanoparticle, liposomes, Dendrimers, Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN) and polymeric micelles is useful for Drug delivery system. Also, helpful to repairs the DNA and treatment of many diseases by increase rate of toxin elimination. The nano medicines in various way initiate the proper biotransformation in livers and also give rise to effective pharmacodynamics profiles. It has been discovered that many nano molecules can be converted into picomolecular medicinal dust (pMMD) entities on lowering the molecular weight, reducing the bond length and shortening the molecular length. This (pMMD) is basically useful in respiratory system treatment, Skin targeted penetration and ophthalmic disorders ramification to ensure hypothetical probability to facilitate Pico-molecular dust involvement as medicinal propeller. Because, it acquires the finest position to receptors less than nano receptors, nano enzymes, nano amino acids chain/polymers, nano pores, nano-microelements, DNA and other nano bio-molecules etc., where nano molecular modules are not effectives. The pico dust will acquires its position into the more specified pico-receptors where nano molecules cannot penetrate or lodge. Pico medicine spray could be implicated superficially over the skin surface at high pressure. So, that it get penetrate upto the subcutaneous and intradermal skin layers with 100% inoculation easily. In ophthalmic preparation, the pico-molecular drugs spray will help to open the drainage area stimulating the receptor on the iris edge corner for dilation of path openings and constriction of circular muscles of eye to create pressure for fluid ejaculation.
Hypothetical Formulation to Propel Pico-molecular Medicinal Dust: Application to Total Elevation of Therapeutic Efficiency Compare to Nano Entity, American Journal of Nano Research and Applications.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2017, pp. 91-101.
P. Ekambaram, A. Abdul Hasan Sathali, K. Priyanka. Sci. Revs. Chem. Commun. 2012; 2 (1): 80–102.
W. Mehnert, K. Mader. Solid lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization and applications Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 47 (2-3); 2001: 165–196.
A. Garud, D. Singh, N. Garud. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): method, characterization and applications. Int. Curr. Pharm. J. 1 (2012: 384–393.
B. V. N. Nagavarma, H. K. Yadav, A. Ayaz, L. S. Vasudha, H. G. Shivakumar. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. Different techniques for preparation of polymeric nanoparticles – A review. 2012; 5(3) 16– 23.
M. R. Shaik, M. Korsapati, D. Panati. Polymers in controlled Drug Delivery. Int. J. Pharma Sci. 2012; 2 (4): 112–116.
A. Mahapatro, D. K. Singh. Biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent vehicle for site directed in vivo delivery of drugs and vaccines, J. Nanobiotechnol. 2011, 9, 1– 11.
M. Dash, F. Chiellini, R. M. Ottenbrite, E. Chiellini. Chitosan—A versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical applications. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2011, 36 (8) 981–1014.
Y. Pathak, D. Thassu, Drug delivery nanoparticles formulation and characterization, Informa Healthcare, New York, USA, 2009, 1–416.
Nitta, S. K.; Numata, K. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1629-1654.
M. P. Desai, V. Labhasetwar, E. Walter, R. J. Levy, G. L. Amidon. The Characteristics and Mechanisms of Uptake of PLGA Nanoparticles in Rabbit Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Layers Pharm. Res. 1997; 14: 1568–1573.
T. Tsuji, H. Yoshitomi, J. Usukura. Endocytic mechanism of transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles and the effects of their size and ligand number on the efficiency of drug delivery. Microscopy (Oxf). 62 (2013) 341–352.
A. Höcherl, M. Dass, K. Landfester, V. Mailänder, A. Musyanovych. Macromol. Cellular uptake of PLA nanoparticles studied by light and electron microscopy: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility studies using an iridium (III) complex as correlative label Biosci. 2012; 12 (23): 454–464.
A. Musyanovych, J. Dausend, M. Dass, P. Walther, V. Mailänder, K. Landfester. Criteria impacting the cellular uptake of nanoparticles: a study emphasizing polymer type and surfactant effects Acta Biomater. 2011; 7 (12): 4160–4168.
L. Tao, W. Hu, Y. Liu, G. Huang, B. D. Sumer, J. Shape-specific polymeric nanomedicine: emerging opportunities and challenges. Gao. Exp. Biol. Med. 236 (2011) 20–29.
S. Kulkarni, S.-S. Feng. Pharm. Res. Effects of particle size and surface modification on cellular uptake and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery. 2013; 30 (10): 2512–2522.
S. Bhattacharjee, D. Ershov, K. Fytianos, J. van der Gucht, G. M. Alink, I. M. C. M. Rietjens, Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different size and surface characteristics. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012 Apr 30; 9: 11. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-9-11.
A. T. M. Marcelis, H. Zuilhof. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different size and surface characteristics. Part Fibre Toxicol. 9 (2012) Article No. 11.
A. Panariti, G. Miserocchi, I. Rivolta. The effect of nanoparticle uptake on cellular behavior: disrupting or enabling functions? Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 5 (2012): 87–100.
D. Zhang, T. Tan, L. Gao, W. Zhao, P. Wang. Drug Dev. Preparation of azithromycin nanosuspensions by high pressure homogenization and its physicochemical characteristics studies. Ind. Pharm. 2007; 33 (5): 569-75.
Xie X. X., Sun A. J., Zhu W. Q., Huang Z. Y., Hu X. Y., Jia J. G., Zou Y. Z., Ge J. B. Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preconditioned with Hydrogen Sulfide Enhances Repair of Myocardial Infarction in Rats. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 2012; 226 (1): 29–36.
M. Marimuthu, D. Bennet, S. Kim. Self-assembled nanoparticles of PLGA-conjugated glucosamine as a sustained transdermal drug delivery vehicle. Polym. J. (2013); 45 (2): 202–209.
Nahar M, Dutta T, Murugesan S, Asthana A, et al. Functional polymeric nanoparticles: an efficient and promising tool for active delivery of bioactives. Crit Rev Thera. Drug Carrier Syst. 2006; 23 (4): 259–318.
Vyas SP, Khar RK. Targeted and controlled drug delivery. CBS publishers and distributers. New Delhi. 2002; 1: 331–43.
Kayser O, Lemke A, Hernández-Trejo N. The impact of nanobiotechnology on the development of new drug delivery systems. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2005; 6 (1): 3–5.
Sriharitha, Preethi J, Hemanth Swaroop. A Review on Nanoparticles in Targeted Drug Delivery System. Research & Reviews: Journal of Material Science. 2006, 4 (4): 1-6.
Chasin M, Langer R (Eds). Biodegradable Polymers as Drug Delivery Systems (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences), 1st edition. New York: Informa Healthcare; 1990.
Chien YW. Novel Drug Delivery Systems (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences), 2nd edn. New York: Informa Healthcare; 1991.
Devarajan PV, Sonavane GS, Doble M. Computer-aided molecular modeling: a predictive approach in the design of nanoparticulate drug delivery system. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2005; 1 (4): 375-83.
Park H, Park K, Shalaby WSW. Biodegradable Hydrogels for Drug Delivery, 1st edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1993.
Ratner BD, Hoffman AS, Schoen FJ, Lemons JE (Eds). Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine, 2nd edn. San Diego: Academic Press; 2004. 1- 864; eBook ISBN: 9780080470368.
Robinson JR, Lee VHL (Eds). Controlled Drug Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1988; 77 (1): 1-94.
Subashini M, Devarajan PV, Sonavane GS, et al. Molecular dynamics simulation of drug uptake by polymer. J Mol Model. 2011; 17 (5): 1141-7. DOI 10.1007/s00894-010-0811-8. Epub 2010.
Ajazuddin, Saraf S, Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations, Fitoterapia. 2010; 81 (7): 680-689.
Y. Barenholz, Relevancy of drug loading to liposomal formulation therapeutic efficacy, J. Liposome Res. 2003; 13 (1): 1-8.
D. Papahadjopoulos, T. M. Allen, A. Gabizon, Sterically stabilized liposomes: improvements in pharmacokinetics and antitumor therapeutic efficacy, Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. USA 88 (1991) 11460-11464.
C. W. Zamboni. Liposomal nanoparticle and conjugated formulations of anticancer agents, Clin. Cancer Research, 2005, 11 (23): 8230-8234.
P. R. Nepal, H. K. Han, H. K. Choi. Preparation and in vitro–in vivo evaluation of Witepsol H35 based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of coenzyme Q10, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 39; 2010: 224-232.
P. Goyal, K. Goyal, G. S. Kumar, A. Sıngh, P. Katare and N. D. Mishra, Liposomal drug delivery systems: clinical applications, Acta. Pharm. 2005; 55: 1-25.
S. Svenson, D. Tomalia. Dendrimers as nanoparticulate drug carriers, in: Imperıal College Press, edited by Torchilin V., USA, 2006; 277-299.
D. Bharali, M. Khalil, M. Gurbuz, M. T. Simone, A. S. Mousa, Nanoparticles and cancer therapy: a concise review with emphasis on dendrimers, International Journal of Nano- medicine 4; 2009: 1-7.
D. A. Tomalia, L. A. Reyna, S. Svenson, Dendrimers asmulti-purpose nanodevices for oncology drug delivery anddiagnostic imaging, Biochemical Society Transactions 35 (2007) 61-67.
S. Svenson, D. A. Tomalia, Dendrimers as nanoparticulate drug carriers, in: Imperıal College Press, edited by V. Torchilin, USA, 2006; 2106-2129.
H. M. Courrier, N. Butz, T. F. Vandamme, Pulmonary drugdelivery systems: recent developments and prospects, Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 19 (2002) 425-498.
S. M. Arayne, N. Sultana, Nanoparticles in drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 19 (3) (2006) 258-268.
N. A. Ochekpe, P. O. Olorunfemi, N. C. Ngwuluka, Nanotechnology and drug delivery part 2: nanostructures for drug delivery, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2009; 8 (3): 275-287.
R. Lander, W. Manger, M. Scouloudis, A. Ku, O. Davis, A. Lee, Gaulin homogenization: a mechanistic study, Biotechnol Prog. 16 (2000) 80-85.
N. A. Lukyanov, P. V. Torchili, Micelles from lipid derivetives of water-soluble polymers as delivery systems for poorly solubly drugs, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 56 (2004) 1273- 1289.
C. Duval-Terrie, P. Cosette, G. Molle, G. Muller, E. De, Amphiphilic biopolymers (amphi- biopols) as new surfactants for membrane protein solubilization, Protein Sci. 12 (4) (2003) 681-689.
Lütfi Genç, Gökhan Dikmen and Gamze Güney. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A 1 (2011) 132-137.
Plumley C, Gorman EM, El-Gendy N, Bybee CR, Munson EJ, Berkland C. Nifedipine nano- particle agglomeration as a dry powder aerosol formulation strategy. Int J Pharm. 2009; 369: 136–143.
Almeida AJ, Souto E. Solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for peptides and proteins. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007; 59 (6): 478–490.
Heidi M Mansour, Yun-Seok Rhee, Xiao Wu. Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery. Inter- national Journal of Nanomedicine. 2009; 4: 299–319.
Yong Liu, Tian-Shui Niu, Long Zhang, Jian-She Yang. Review on nano-drugs. Natural Science, 2010; 2 (1): 41-48.
Swapna Upadhyay, Koustav Ganguly and Lena Palmberg. Wonders of Nanotechnology in the Treatment for Chronic Lung Diseases. J Nanomed Nanotechnol. 2015; 6 (6): 1-5.
Fabritz S, Hörner S, Könning D, Empting M, Reinwarth M, Dietz C, et al. From pico to nano: biofunctionalization of cube-octameric silsesquioxanes by peptides and mini proteins. Org Biomol Chem. 2012 Aug 21; 10 (31): 6287-93.