Selective Pattern Transfer of Nano-Scale Features Generated by FE-SPL in 10 nm Thick Resist Layers
American Journal of Nano Research and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 11-20
Received: Jan. 8, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 20, 2018;
Published: Mar. 7, 2018
Views 2076 Downloads 168
Martin Hofmann, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Cemal Aydogan, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany; Department of Electronics and Cryptology, TUBITAK - YITAL, Kocaeli, Turkey
Claudia Lenk, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Yana Krivoshapkina, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Steve Lenk, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Burkhard Volland, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Marcus Kaestner, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Burhanettin Erdem Alaca, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey
Eberhard Manske, Department of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
Ivo Rangelow, Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany
High performance single nanometer lithography is an enabling technology for beyond CMOS devices. In this terms a novel mask- and development-less patterning scheme by using electric field, current controlled Scanning Probe Lithography (FE-SPL) in order to pattern structures on different samples was developed. This work aims to manufacture nanostructures into different resist by using FE-SPL, whereas plasma etching at cryogenic temperatures is applied for an efficient pattern transfer into the bottom Si substrate. The challenge for future quantum devices, generated by SPL and cryogenic etching, is finding a resist that is at most 10 nm in thickness and has a plasma durability high enough for pattern transfer into silicon. As a first step towards future quantum devices the silicon-to-resist selectivity of calixarene, AZ Barli, poly (3-hexylthiophen-2, 5-diyl) and polymethylmethacrylat for the anisotropic cryogenic dry etching process was estimated. A silicon-to-resist selectivity of about 4:1 for each of these resists was found. With these results, nano-scale, highly parallel double line features in silicon for future double patterning were generated.
Burhanettin Erdem Alaca,
Selective Pattern Transfer of Nano-Scale Features Generated by FE-SPL in 10 nm Thick Resist Layers, American Journal of Nano Research and Applications.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 11-20.
I. W. Rangelow, A. Ahmad, T. Ivanov, M. Kaestner, Y. Krivoshapkina, T. Angelov, S. Lenk, C. Lenk, V. Ishchuk, M. Hofmann, D. Nechepurenko, I. Atanasov, B. Volland, E. Guliyev, Z. Durrani, M. Jones, C. Wang, D. Liu, A. Reum, M. Holz, N. Nikolov, W. Majstrzyk, T. Gotszalk, D. Staaks, S. Dallorto, and D. L. Olynick, “Pattern-generation and pattern- transfer for single-digit nano devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena 34 (6), 06K202 (2016).
S. Lenk, M. Kaestner, C. Lenk, T. Angelov, Y. Krivoshapkina, Ivo W. Rangelow, "2D Simulation of Fowler-Nordheim Electron Emission in Scanning Probe Lithography". J Nanomater Mol Nanotechnol 5 (6) (2016).
I. W. Rangelow, Tz. Ivanov, Y. Sarov, A. Schuh, A. Frank, H. Hartmann, J.-P. Zöllner, D. Olynick, V. Kalchenko, "Nanoprobe maskless lithography.", Proc. SPIE 7637 (2010).
Z. Durrani, M. Jones, M. Kaestner, M. Hofer, E. Guliyev, A. Ahmad, T. Ivanov, J.-P. Zoellner, Ivo W. Rangelow, "Scanning probe lithography approach for beyond CMOS devices," Proc. SPIE 8680, Alternative Lithographic Technologies V, 868017 (2013).
I. W. Rangelow, “Scanning proximity probes for nanoscience and nanofabrication,” Microelectronic Engineering 83 (4-9), 1449–1455 (2006).
K. Ivanova, Y. Sarov, T. Ivanov, A. Frank, J. Zöllner, C. Bitterlich, U. Wenzel, B. E. Volland, S. Klett, I. W. Rangelow, P. Zawierucha, M. Zielony, T. Gotszalk, D. Dontzov, W. Schott, N. Nikolov, M. Zier, B. Schmidt, W. Engl, T. Sulzbach, and I. Kostic, “Scanning proximal probes for parallel imaging and lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26 (6), 2367–2373 (2008).
T. Ivanov, T. Gotszalk, T. Sulzbach, and I. W. Rangelow, “Quantum size aspects of the piezoresistive effect in ultra thin piezoresistors,” Ultramicroscopy 97 (1-4), 377–384 (2003).
T. Gotszalk, P. Grabiec, and I. W. Rangelow, “Piezoresistive sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 82 (1-4), 39–48 (2000).
M. Kaestner, T. Ivanov, A. Schuh, A. Ahmad, T. Angelov, Y. Krivoshapkina, M. Budden, M. Hofer, S. Lenk, J.-P. Zoellner, I. W. Rangelow, A. Reum, E. Guliyev, M. Holz, and N. Nikolov, “Scanning probes in nanostructure fabrication.”, Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena 32 (6), 06F101 (2014).
M. Kaestner, K. Nieradka, T. Ivanov, S. Lenk, Y. Krivoshapkina, A. Ahmad, T. Angelov, E. Guliyev, A. Reum, M. Budden, T. Hrasok, M. Hofer, C. Neuber, and I. W. Rangelow, “Electric field scanning probe lithography on molecular glass resists using self-actuating, self-sensing cantilever,” Proc. SPIE 90490C (2014).
D. M. Eigler and E. K. Schweizer, “Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nature 344 (6266), 524–526 (1990).
O. Custance, R. Perez, and S. Morita, “Atomic force microscopy as a tool for atom manipulation,” Nature nanotechnology 4 (12), 803–810 (2009).
S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, and S. Okudaira, “Low‐temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (8), 616–618 (1988).
E. S. Aydil, J. A. Gregus, and R. A. Gottscho, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor for cryogenic etching,” Review of Scientific Instruments 64 (12), 3572–3584 (1993).
G. S. Oehrlein and Y. Kurogi, “Sidewall surface chemistry in directional etching processes,” Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 24 (4), 153–183 (1998).
S. Aachboun and P. Ranson, “Deep anisotropic etching of silicon.”, Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 17 (4), 2270–2273 (1999).
S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, S. Arai, and T. Kure, “Low‐temperature dry etching.”, Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 9 (3), 796–803 (1991).
I. W. Rangelow, “Critical tasks in high aspect ratio silicon dry etching for microelectromechanical systems.”, Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 21 (4), 1550–1562 (2003).
C. B. Mullins and J. W. Coburn, “Ion‐beam‐assisted etching of Si with fluorine at low temperatures,” Journal of Applied Physics 76 (11), 7562–7566 (1994).
R. Dussart, T. Tillocher, P. Lefaucheux, and M. Boufnichel, “Plasma cryogenic etching of silicon. From the early days to today's advanced technologies,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 (12), 123001 (2014).
J. W. Bartha, J. Greschner, M. Puech, and P. Maquin, “Low temperature etching of Si in high density plasma using SF6/O2,” Microelectronic Engineering 27 (1-4), 453–456 (1995).
I. W. Rangelow, “Reactive ion etching for microelectrical mechanical system fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13 (6), 2394 (1995).
D. L. Olynick, J. A. Liddle, B. D. Harteneck, S. Cabrini, and I. W. Rangelow, “Nanoscale pattern transfer for templates, NEMS, and nano-optics,” in, edited by M.-A. Maher, H. D. Stewart, J.-C. Chiao, T. J. Suleski, E. G. Johnson, and G. P. Nordin (SPIE, 2007), 64620J.
X. Mellhaoui, R. Dussart, T. Tillocher, P. Lefaucheux, P. Ranson, M. Boufnichel, and L. J. Overzet, “SiOxFy passivation layer in silicon cryoetching,” Journal of Applied Physics 98 (10), 104901 (2005).
T. Tillocher, R. Dussart, L. J. Overzet, X. Mellhaoui, P. Lefaucheux, M. Boufnichel, and P. Ranson, “Two Cryogenic Processes Involving SF6, O2, and SiF4 for Silicon Deep Etching,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155 (3), D187 (2008).
A. F. Isakovic, K. Evans-Lutterodt, D. Elliott, A. Stein, and J. B. Warren, “Cyclic, cryogenic, highly anisotropic plasma etching of silicon using SF6/O2,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 26 (5), 1182–1187 (2008).
R. Kassing and I. W. Rangelow, “Etching processes for High Aspect Ratio Micro Systems Technology (HARMST),” Microsystem Technologies 3 (1), 20–27 (1996).
J. Fujita, “Nanometer-scale resolution of calixarene negative resist in electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14 (6), 4272 (1996).
M. J. Rooks and A. Aviram, “Application of 4-methyl-1-acetoxycalix  arene resist to complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor gate processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17 (6), 3394 (1999).
Y. Ohnishi, J. Fujita, Y. Ochiai, and S. Matsui, “Calixarenes-prospective materials for nanofabrications-,” Microelectronic Engineering 35 (1-4), 117–120 (1997).
Y. Krivoshapkina, M. Kaestner, C. Lenk, S. Lenk, and I. W. Rangelow, “Low-energy electron exposure of ultrathin polymer films with scanning probe lithography,” Microelectronic Engineering 177, 78–86 (2017).
L. Janasz, D. Chlebosz, M. Gradzka, W. Zajaczkowski, T. Marszalek, K. Müllen, J. Ulanski, A. Kiersnowski, and W. Pisula, “Improved charge carrier transport in ultrathin poly (3-hexylthiophene) films via solution aggregation,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4 (48), 11488–11498 (2016).
J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Coronado, A. Forment-Aliaga, and E. Pinilla-Cienfuegos, “Correction of the tip convolution effects in the imaging of nanostructures studied through scanning force microscopy,” Nanotechnology 25 (39), 395703 (2014).
S. Yuan, F. Luan, X. Song, L. Liu, and J. Liu, “Reconstruction of an AFM image based on estimation of the tip shape,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24 (10), 105404 (2013).
A. T. Winzer, C. Kraft, S. Bhushan, V. Stepanenko, and I. Tessmer, “Correcting for AFM tip induced topography convolutions in protein-DNA samples,” Ultramicroscopy 121, 8–15 (2012).
A. J. M. Mackus, A. A. Bol, and W. M. M. Kessels, “The use of atomic layer deposition in advanced nanopatterning,” Nanoscale 6 (19), 10941–10960 (2014).
M. Kaestner, C. Aydogan, T. Ivanov, A. Ahmad, T. Angelov, A. Reum, V. Ishchuk, Y. Krivoshapkina, M. Hofer, S. Lenk, I. Atanasov, M. Holz, and I. W. Rangelow, “Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 14 (3), 31202 (2015).