Trace Metals, Potassium Bromate and Nutritional Potentials in Bread from Bakeries in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
This research assessed bread from bakeries in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, for trace metals, nutritive value and potassium bromate using standard procedures. Samples were collected from four bakeries coded as: A, B, C and D. Alkaloids, glycosides, steroids and saponins were present in all samples. Flavonoids were only present in samples obtained from bakery D. Quantitatively, phytochemical composition ranged from 0.08±0.00 mg/100g glycoside in samples from bakery A to 3.76±0.00 mg/100g alkaloids also in samples from bakery A. Trace metal analysis indicated that copper was only detected in samples from bakery B, and that iron levels were less than 0.009 mg/100g in all the samples, while tin was < 0.001 mg/100g in samples from bakery A and was not detected in samples from bakeries B, C and D. The levels of potassium bromate analysed by the congo red oxidation method in all the samples ranged from 6.66±0.00 to 52.19±0.00 mg/kg. With crystal violet oxidation method, they ranged from 5.09±0.00 to 58.36±0.01 mg/kg. Proximate composition ranged from 0.03±0.00 fiber in samples from A, C and D to 73.38±0.00% CHO in samples from C, while the calorific values ranged from 280.11±0.00 to 359±0.00 kcal in all the samples. Anti-nutrient composition ranged from 0.21±0.00 mg/100g tannin in samples from B to 1.68±0.00 mg/100g HCN in samples from C. Essential mineral composition ranged from 0.01±0.00 mg/100g phosphorus and sodium in samples from A and D to 1.89±0.00 mg/100g calcium in samples from B. Vitamins composition ranged from 0.19±0.00 mg/100g vitamin B2 in samples from D to 4.62±0.00 mg/100g vitamin C in samples from C. The bread samples were to some extend nutritive. The anti-nutrients and trace metals in the bread were below the levels that could cause toxicity in humans, except that the bread contained potassium bromate (banned chemicals that are hazardous to human health).
Emmanuel Isaac Uwah,
Ernest Daniel Ikwebe,
Trace Metals, Potassium Bromate and Nutritional Potentials in Bread from Bakeries in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, American Journal of Applied Chemistry.
Vol. 8, No. 3,
2020, pp. 63-73.
Uwah, E. I., Moses, E. A. and Okokon, K. R. (2015). Proximate, mineral and antinutrient composition of Justica schinipen and Amaranthus viridis consumed in Idu, Uruan, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 (10): 24–30.
Pomeranz, Y. (1987). Bread around the World. In: Pomeranz, Y. (Ed.), Modern Cereal Science and Technology. VCH Publishers Inc., New York, NY, 333 p.
Owens, G. (1997). China: handled with care. Cereals International, 14–16.
Magomya, A. M., Yebpella, G. G., Udiba, U. U., Amos, H. S. and Latayo, M. S. (2013). Potassium bromate and heavy metal content of selected bread samples produced in Zaria, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology, 2 (2): 232–234.
Vadlamani, K. R. and Seib, G. (1999). Effect of zinc and aluminium ions in bread baking. Cereal Chemistry, 76 (1): 355–360.
Ahmad, A. B. (2013). Potassium Bromate Levels in Bread Samples, a Case Study of Some Selected Areas in Kano Metropolis. MSc. Dissertation. Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. 56 p.
Maxiya-Dixen, B., Akinyele, I. O., Oguntuna, E. B., okoe, N., Sanusi, S. and Harrris, R. A. (2004). Nigerian Food Consumption and Nutritional Survey 2001-2003. IITA Ibadon. 67 p.
Demirozu, B. and Saldamli, I. (2002). Metallic contamination problem in a pasta production plant. Turkish Journal Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 26: 361-365.
Klaus, L. and Robert, L. (1987). Mineral composition of U.S. and Canadian wheat and wheat blends. Journal Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 25 (4): 806-809.
Onianwa, P. G., Idown, J. and Ogabiela, E. E. (2001). Copper and zinc contents of Nigerian foods and estimates of the adults dietary intakes. Food Chemistry, 72: 89-95.
Sofowora, L. A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, 71 p.
Ayoola, G. A., Coker, H. A., Adesegun, S. A. Adepoju-Bello A. A., Obaweya, K., Ezennia, E. C. and Atangbayila, T. O. (2008). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants accessed for malaria therapy in south-western Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 7: 1019–1024.
Uwah, E. I. and Mkpa E. R. (2016). Chemical evaluation and nutritive value of cultivated and wild Gongronema latifolium obtained in Etinan, Akwa Ibom State. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10 (8): 70–83.
Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods, Champman and Hall, London. 113 p.
Sanches-Alonso, F. and Lachica, M. (1987). Seasonal trends in the elemental content of plum leaves. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 18: 31-44.
Lucas, G. M. and Markakas. G (1975). Phytic acid and other phosphorus compounds of bean (phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 23: 13-15.
Onwuka, S. K. and Olopade, J. O. (2005). Some aspects of the clinical anatomy of the mandibular and maxillofacial regions of the west African dwarf goat in Nigeria. International Journal of Morphology, 23 (1): 33-36.
Inuwa, H. M., Aina, V. O., Baba, G., Aimola, C. and Amao, T. (2011). Comparative determination of antinutritional factors in groundnut oil and palm oil. Advanced Journal of Food Science Technology, 3 (4): 275-279.
Kadhakrishna, M. R. and Silvaprasad, J. (1980). Tannins content of sorghum varieties and their roles in iron bio-availability. Journal Agriculture and food chemistry, 28: 55-57.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1980). Official Method of Analysis. 13th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC. 384 p.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1999). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC. 792 p.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (2010). Official Method of Analysis, 17th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC. U.S.A.
Muller, H. G. and Tobin, G. (1980). Nutrition and Food Processing. Croom Heim, London.
Narmeen, S. A. and Media, A. H. (2009). Spectrophotometeric determination of bromate in bread by the oxidation of dyes. Journal of Kirkuk University–Scientific Studies, 4 (1): 32-33.
Shah, H., Patel, S., Patel, B., Solanki, N. and Jivania, N. P. (2012). Development and validation of uv-visible spectrometric method for estimation of water soluble vitamin riboflavin. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3 (9): 3462-3466.
Chinma, C. E and Igyor, M. A. (2007). Micronutrients and anti-nutritional contents of selected tropical vegetables grown in southeast Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal, 25 (1): 111-116.
Hunt, S., Groff, I. L. and Holbrook, J. (1980). Nutrition, Principles and Chemical Practice. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 462 p.
Hassan, L. G., Sani, N. A., Dangogo, S. M. and Ladan, M. J. (2007): Nutritional value of bottle gourd (Lageneria siceraria) seeds. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 14 (3): 301–306.
Soetan, K. O. and Oyewale, O. E. (2009). The need for adequate processing to reduce the antinutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds: a review. African Journal of Food Science, 3: 223-232.
Ebun–Oluwa, P. O. and Alade, A. S. (2007). Nutritional potential of belandiern nettle spurge Jatropha cathatica seed. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6: 345–348.
Agbaire, P. O. and Emoyan, O. O. (2012). Nutritional and anti-nutritional levels of some local vegetables from Delta State, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science Technology, 6: 8-11.
Ladeji, O., Akin C. U. and Umaru, H. A. (2004). Level of Anti-nutritional factors in vegetables commonly eaten in Nigeria. African Journal of Natural Science, 7: 71-73.
Uwah, E. I. and Moses, E. A. (2015). Phytochemical and trace metal analyses of selected local spices plant consumed in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Sciences, 2: 25–31.
Akande, K. E., Doma, U. D., Agu, H. O. and Adamu, H. M. (2010). Major anti-nutrient found in plant protein sources: their effect on nutrition. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 827–832.
Adeyeye, E. I. and Fagbohun E. D. (2005). Proximate, mineral and phytate profiles of some selected spices found in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Science Industrial Research, 48 (1): 14-22.
Devesh, T., Pandey, H., Saha, A N., Meenab, H. S. and Manchandab, A. (2012). Pharmacognostical and biochemical investigation of Ocimum kilimandscharicum plants available in western himalayan region. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2 (4): 446–451.
Turan, M., Kordali, S., Zengin, H., Dursun, A. and Sezen, Y. (2003). Macro and micromineral content of some wild edible leaves consumed in eastern Anatolia. Plant Soil Science, 53: 129-137.